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Solar Wind Pressure Equation

What Is A Solar Sail

I'm Fraser Cain, and I'm a sailor. Well, okay, I've got a sailboat that I take out on the water when its warm and the weather's nice here on Vancouver Island. I think it's one of the reasons I absolutely love the idea of a solar sail. Here's how they work Light is made up of photons. Even though they have no mass at rest, they have momentum when they're moving, well, light speed. When they reflect off a surface, like a mirror or a shiny piece of metal, they impart some of this momentum to.

That surface. This effect is negligible here on Earth, but out in space, with forces perfectly in balance, that additional momentum can really add up. A spacecraft flying to Mars gets pushed off course by several thousand kilometers because of light pressure from the Sun.If mission planners didn't compensate for this drift, their spacecraft would miss the planet, or even worse, crash into it. Even though the total amount of pressure per square meter on a solar sail is minuscule, it's constantly streaming from the Sun, and it's totally free.And propulsion that you don't have to carry with.

You is the best kind there is. This is more than just an idea. Solar sails have already been launched and deployed in space. The Japanese Ikaros satellite unfurled a 14meter solar sail back in 2010. NASA launched its own NanosailD spacecraft in 2011. An even bigger solar sail, the Sunjammer, is planned for launch in 2014. The Planetary Society is working on a solar sail project as well. The closer to the Sun you are, the better they work. In fact, a solar sail would be an ideal vehicle to explore the regions of Mercury and Venus, since they receive so much.

Radiation. But you're probably wondering how a solar sail could get down to those planets because light is streaming from the Sun in all directions. It's all about raising and lowering your orbit. If you want to raise your orbit around an object, all you have to do is speed up. And if you want to lower your orbit, you just need to slow down. A solar sail launched from Earth would start out with the same orbital velocity around the Sun as the Earth. To get into a higher orbit, it tilts the sail so that the light.

From the Sun speeds it up. And to get into a lower orbit, it tilts in the opposite direction, and the light from the Sun acts like a brake. A solar sail might even be the ideal spacecraft to make the journey to another star. An interstellar solar sail could lower its orbit so that it's just above the surface of the Sun. Then, it would unfurl the full sail and capture the most possible photons. A series of powerful laser beams would then target the sail and increase its velocity to a significant fraction.

ES Subs NASA Planetary Science Studying the Solar Wind on Mars HD

Mars's atmosphere is much less dense than the Earth's, it only has about one percent of the density of the Earth's atmosphere. However, we're pretty sure that Mars had a much thicker atmosphere in the past, because there's such strong evidence for running water on the surface, and to have running water, Mars's atmosphere had to be much thicker. Now MAVEN is going to look at how Mars lost its atmosphere, in particular whether it could have lost its atmosphere to space. My name is Bob Lin, I'm a professor of physics.

And I work at the Space Sciences Laboratory of the University of California at Berkeley. MAVEN is a Mars Scout mission for NASA, and it's an orbital mission to Mars which is designed to study the loss of the atmosphere of Mars. For example if there was a large solar eruption, if the solar wind increased in strength, we could then look at how the atmosphere gets lost in each of these situations. Because Mars is in the solar wind, a lot of the loss comes from these ions and electrons that are escaping,.

And the Particles and Fields package is designed to look at the escape of the charged particles from the atmosphere. We have the Solar Wind Ion Analyzer, which measures the incoming solar wind, then we have the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer, which measures the incoming solar wind electrons. We have the Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument, and that measures solar ultraviolet. It also measures lowenergy electrons that might be escaping from Mars, and furthermore it measures waves that might be accelerating the ions so that they can escape from Mars. We then have the STATIC instrument.

It will give us the composition of what is escaping, whether it's CO2, or hydrogen, or helium and so forth. The Solar Energetic Particle instrument, SEP, measures highenergy particles from the Sun, and those particles will hit the atmosphere and cause a lot of damage. And finally there's a magnetometer, which will measure the magnetic field in the solar wind and the magnetic field of Mars. Mars is the only planet, besides the Earth, where you really have a chance that life might have formed. The conditions for life are water, running water,.

Why Does the Wind Blow

Music playing The word wind can mean many things. It can be peaceful. Violent. Powerful. Exciting. Bitingly cold. Or searingly hot. Wind is everywhere, all the time. But where exactly does it come from I mean, it's only air, which we've talked about a little before. But there are no fans, or turbines, or giant people in the sky blowing the air around, so... where does the wind come from Even when you don't feel the wind, the air is never totally still. If you zoomed way in, you'd see air molecules, bouncing around, colliding with each other and everything around.

Them. All that bumping and bashing creates a force. It's the force of all those bouncing air molecules over a given area of Earth that results in pressure. See, air has mass, and gravity drives that air down towards the ground. That's why there's more air pressure down here, than, say, Mount Everest. The average atmospheric pressure on Earth is one bar. Or 100,000 Pascals. But luckily that pressure isn't pushing straight down. The force goes out in all directions. SO we aren't squished into pancakes. Wind is what happens when air moves from high pressure to low. Anyone who's ever watched.

The weather knows that air pressure isn't the same everywhere. And that's because of temperature. Air near the equator is heated by the energy of the sun, so it becomes less dense and it rises. Near the poles there's not as much heating by the sun, and that cold dense air sinks down toward the Earth. Right along the equator that creates this area with almost no wind, called the doldrums. But wind doesn't come straight from the north or south. The Earth is turning, and because the atmosphere isn't attached to Earth, that causes the wind.

To curl and rotate. That's known as the Coriolis Effect. If you want to experience that, just try to play catch on a merrygoround. Pressure and temperature combine with a rotating Earth, tilted on its axis and covered in sunabsorbing land masses, and the winds of the Earth begin to swirl like a Van Gogh painting. So begins the swirling cycle of heating, cooling, and rotation that drives everything from gentle breezes to destructive hurricanes. Sometimes a little science can just... blow you away. My name is Marie Curie and I give It's Okay To Be Smart a glowing review. So subscribe.

Battle of Giant Windy Stars

NASA's Swift and ESA's XMMNewton satellites have used their Xray telescopes to watch the interaction between a pair of gigantic stars. This is a stellar grouping called Cygnus OB2, one of the richest collections of hot, massive Otype stars in the galaxy. Unfortunately for optical astronomers, this spectacular sight is mostly hidden by dust clouds. One of these stars is a radio source simply called Cygnus OB2 number 9. In 2008, astronomers concluded that the changes in radio emission only made sense if the star were actually a binary, with two massive stars in a tight orbit. Massive stars run so hot.

That they actually drive away some of their gas in powerful outflows called stellar winds. In binaries with two large young stars orbiting closely, these hot outflows collide and produce Xrays. Only a few of these colliding wind systems are known, and they aren't especially well behaved for astronomers. The collision may become turbulent, and Xrays may appear only at some times in the orbit. Which brings us back to Cygnus OB2 number nine. It should produce Xrays where the stars' winds collide, but there was no evidence for it. Perhaps it only occurred when the stars.

Were closest in their 2.4year orbit. The first opportunity to test this came during the close approach on June 28, 2011. So astronomers enlisted Swift and XMMNewton, as well as groundbased observatories to monitor the system at intervals throughout the year. As the stars approach each other, their fierce winds crash together at several million miles an hour, reaching temperatures of millions of degrees and creating Xrays. As they separate, the collision strength decreases. Even so, these powerful winds will influence star formation in the binary's neighborhood. Cygnus OB2 number nine has turned out to be a model colliding.

Bubble wrap and other insulation products catch on in Korea as temperatures drop

With the drop in mercury levels,. insulation products have been gaining popularity here in Korea. The products are cheap and easy to install,. but just how effective are they in cutting heating costs Our Kim Minji takes a look. Bubble wrap,. commonly used to wrap fragile goods,. has been selling well in Korea not for its original purpose, but for its insulating effects. But just HOW effective is it In a recent experiment, a window was divided into three parts and one part was covered with a layer of bubble wrap, another with.

Two layers,. while a third part was left without it. The room was set at 20 degrees Celcius,. the temperature outside was minus 15. Two hours later,. the part without the bubble wrap had dropped to 13 degrees Celsius, while the part with one layer of bubble wrap was 15point5 degrees and the double layered part of the window was 16 degrees. As the results show,. bubble wrap helps prevent heat loss by about 3 degrees. For better results, it would be best not to cover the parts of the window that get.

The most sunlight,. so as to receive as much solar energy as possible. Another experiment was conducted to see how effective vinyl insulation film and paper weather strips were in blocking drafts. After the materials were placed, researchers directed a wind with a speed of five meters per second at the window and measured the pressure of the leaking air. When nothing was installed on the window, the pressure was seven. The window covered with wind vinyl had a pressure reading of zero meaning it had blocked the draft 100percent.

The paper weather strip, on the other hand, had a pressure reading of five,. meaning it was only able to block about 20 to 30 percent of the draft. A lot of households are placing insulation strips and bubble wrap on their windows. But before doing that, they must block the draft coming in from the windows and doors to make it effective. So go ahead and try a combination of these simple but effective methods to conserve the heat in your home, instead of worrying about your heating bill. Kim Minji, Arirang News.

Overview and Testing Canon Vixia R500 Camera with external Mic at our off grid solar cabin

Good morning bill and rosa our off grid solar cabin im trying to test out this new camera. with a microphone and also i have no clue what it sounds like. but as you can see its pretty foggy here. drawing in about 130 watts of solar of the roof up there but uh see if i can get you a better shot out of this but i did change out the uh turbine with a new tail wider longer tail. and uh put the little barrings up there and i will editing more tutorial cause i did.

About 20 to 30 minutes of me taking it off and putting it on and all the work I did so that will take a little time to try and go through and clean it up I did that and see if i can get around here without getting to muddy. its a mess around here. and then i put in another piece of stove pipe and just because I wanted to and gave it support straps cause its pretty high up there now. and we got our first egg off of one of our hens.

A little brown hen that came off the nest she did lay in the nest. which was cool. usually they dont start off laying in the nest. but we took care of them and had to go pull my pickup truck out of the bog went to help my neighbor and sunk the pickup truck its a mess. but we came home and thats what we pretty much attacked. let me get up here and walk across my little path be glad when it dries out a little bit. but thats what we did.

The tutorial is coming out were i put that up there and respond and a little bit a wind that thing will turn now with out any questions so we will see how that little barring works out. thats about all we did. cloudy and overcast thats what we had going on. there will be some tutorial coming out shortly after I get them all cleaned up and the turbine work and a few other things I was doing but yall have a blessed day. My dad is still kicking but not very high but he is having some good days and bad days.

WIND GENERATOR HINDI 28MB.wmv

This is an extraordinary wind generator. you will require all types of odd materials for making it. first take a film can and make two through holes. then take two short straws and push them in these holes with a gap in the middle.then take thin insulated copper wire used in motor winding and wind almost 600 turns, criss cross. adhere with glue. take a paper cup and cut out slightly tapered blades from them. this cup has a natural curvature, so blades would be curved. after you cut the blades, slightly shape them by removing the.

Triangles and make seven equal blades. make a hole in the middle of the lid and apply glue on its surface. once it dries partially, stick all the seven blades and this would make the rotor. finally in the middle press fit a cycle spoke. now this completes the rotor assembly. take a piece of rubber, stand four sticks and stick a little CD piece in the middle. then cut the film can so as to make just a short pipe. take the film can and tie it tightly on the four sticks. you can also glue it in place. now take an LED.

And join its two ends to a wire. take a bicycle spoke and fix it in its nut. at the other end of the spoke put an old refill. now take the rotor assembly and insert the fan with the spoke in the two bearings with a little rubber piece in the middle. in the end take a piece of refill and stick it to the lower end of the spoke. so that the refill point of this whole rotor will rotate. now take two strong magnets and stick them back to.

Wind Turbines for the Home

Generating electricity from kinetic energy via the wind could well be the next frontier for home electricity generation. The PV cells on the garage roof have been performing very well the house is using about 6 more kWh per day than we produce so the next thing we want to look at is wind power. The house is about 800m off the coast so coastal winds will help but is there enough wind to drive a turbine. We have measured the wind speed here, it averages 7.5mps which means we are a viable site for.

The installation of a real wind turbine. The small turbine we are looking at is from Swan Energy, they have jointly developed it and it's the first of its kind to be released here. Until now the inverters that allow us to put power back into the grid have been a challenge for turbine manufacturers. Before we install the wind turbine we need approval from local authorities and our energy provider. In the past one of the problems with wind turbines in residential areas is noise. Well I'm going to check out an installation and find out just how much noise they actually.

Make. Well here we are and there is the first installation of the Zephyr and it's turning very well the wind is quite strong here but it's not making any noise so whatever the wind noise problems are with the larger turbines this one, doesn't have them. They seem to have corrected or fixed it with the design it's virtually silent. The turbine is compact and relatively light but it has the potential to generate more electricity than the PV cells on our roof. It is precision manufactured from ultra light.

Material and is perfectly balanced. Swan' Energy's engineers have designed a mast and mounting system that is fixed to the fixed to the brick section to the front of the house. The fixings are set deep into the wall providing solid support and prevent any movement or vibrations in the strongest winds. The mast will position the turbine 3m above the roof to take advantage of the wind here. The Zephyr is the first of this kind of turbine in Australia. Swan Energy expect sales to ramp up over the next 12 months as energy conscious home owners and government organisations.

Solar Water Heater System

We install our gas boosted solar hot water system. The collector panels are mounted on the garage roof directly above the storage tank. The gas booster is adjustable so we can fine tune the hot water supply to maximise its efficiency. Getting the temperature right means you don't have to mix in too much cold water. Once it is up and running, the system is bled and we are ready to roll. The panels are on the north face of the house and angled at about 9 degrees. Because we are installing the storage tank inside the garage it will need to be flumed out into.

The atmosphere to comply with safety regulations. This is part of our gas boosted hot water system installation. It's called the water guardian and what it does, when you turn on the hot tap instead of allowing the cold water to run out first before the hot water arrives it recycles it back into the storage tank. Just press the button, it comes on we wait for it to stop There we are, piping hot water strait away. This device saves 16000 litres of water per annum per outlet. Worth doing.

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