NASA Voyager Finds Magnetic Bubbles at Solar Systems Edge
Tone Tone Music Narrator The two Voyager spacecraft have been traveling away from Earth for more than 33 years and they are finally in the outer edge of the solar system. This boundary is marked by the outer reaches of the sun's magnetic field and solar wind, which form an enormous expanse called the heliosphere. As the solar wind travels out from the sun, it pushes against the galactic medium and abruptly slows down. This is called the termination shock. Outside this is the heliosheath, where the solar wind slows to a stop.
And the magnetic field is bent back by the ionized interstellar wind. The sun's magnetic field spins opposite directions on the north and south poles, creating a sheet where the two spins meet. This sheet gently ripples as it travels outward and the ripples get bigger as they go. When this sheet reaches the termination shock, it starts to compress, like water waves hitting a wall. The Voyager spacecraft have now found that after the termination shock, these stackedup ripples of magnetic field form bubbles, shown here as a computer simulation.
This discovery has prompted a complete revision of what the heliosheath region looks like. The smooth streamlined look is gone, replaced with a bubbly, frothy outer layer. This new layer also changes our understanding of how extremely fastmoving particles called cosmic rays enter our solar system. When they arrive at the bubble region, they slowly move from bubble to bubble until they can reach smooth magnetic field lines and follow them toward the sun. The nature of the bubble region explains why Voyager II has been seeing variations in the number of energetic particles compared.
To Voyager I. Because of its path, Voyager II has been passing in and out of the bubble region. When it is in the region Voyager II sees many trapped cosmic rays and electrons. When it is out of the region the spacecraft sees fewer. Even as the Voyagers answer questions about our solar system, they raise others. For example, scientists aren't clear yet how the bubbly heliosheath is linked to the ribbon feature discovered by IBEX and Cassini. This ribbon shows the emission of energetic particles and seems to indicate some interaction with interstellar space.
Earths GeoMagnetic Field David Rives
Our planet is thought to contain a liquid iron core. But why is this significant Earth's GeoMagnetic fields are believed to be produced by a liquid iron planetary core. The GeoMagnetic field that surrounds the Earth enables our compasses to be used as a means of navigation, but more importantly, it acts as a deflection shield for dangerous phenomenon like the Solar wind and cosmic radiation. Bursts of radiation from the Sun have been known to knock out satellite communication, and can be particularly destructive to living organisms, so without this protective shield,.
Our planet would become like Mercury, constantly swept with the solar wind, making it barren, desolate, and void of life. There ARE times when small amounts of the charged solar particles enter the Earth's atmosphere. These are observed through a colorful display known as the Aurora Borealis and Australis, the Northern and Southern Lights. Although the solar wind is not totally stopped by the GeoMagnetic fields, it is held back at a safe distance and provides us with just one more example of the majesty of the heavens and the incredible design by our Creator.
Earths GeoMagnetic Field David Rives
We know that the Earth is special, and there are factors that protect our planet from large incoming debris. In addition, there are many other threats that are potentially just as devastating. Cosmic Radiation is one of those threats. Our planet is thought to have a liquid iron core. Why is this significant Because Earth's GeoMagnetic fields are believed to be produced by this liquid core. The GeoMagnetic field that surrounds the Earth enables our compasses to be used as a means of navigation, but more importantly, it acts as a deflection shield for dangerous.
Phenomenon like the Solar wind and cosmic radiation. Without this field, our planet would become as Mercury. It would constantly be swept with the solar wind making Earth barren, desolate, and void of life. There ARE times when some of the charged particles from the solar wind still enter the Earth's upper atmosphere. These are observed through a colorful display known as the Aurora Borealis and Australis or more commonly, the Northern and Southern Lights. Although the solar wind is not totally stopped by the GeoMagnetic fields, it is still held.
The Mystery Of Venus Green Glow
It's not easy being green. Just ask Venus. Hello! I'm Ian O'Neill, space producer for Discovery News, and I thought I'd pop into the studio today to talk about a planet that rarely gets much press, even though it's considered Earth's evil twin. I am of course talking about Venus a world that's closer to the Sun than Earth is, but has an environment that is EXTREMELY hazardous to life. Well, for LIFE AS WE KNOW IT, anyhow. There might be little cloudfloating aliens who knows! But that's for a different episode.
For a long time, Venus remained a tantalizing mystery for astronomers the thick hazy atmosphere completely obscured its surface, keeping it a well guarded secret. But after decades of observations by telescopes on the ground, unmanned spacecraft flybys, plus a Soviet lander and balloonborne atmospheric probe yes, we've floated a balloon in the atmosphere of another planet!, we've come to realize that Venus is a deeply fascinating place. But we won't see astronauts exploring its surface any time soon because, ya know, they'd MELT. So we tend to focus more attention on Earth's red sibling, Mars.
Now that the European Space Agency has the Venus Express satellite in orbit around Venus, there's been a lot more interest in the clouded planet and the mysteries its atmosphere contains and one of the most mysterious things about Venus is its green glow. On Earth, we have the aurora also known as the Northern, or Southern Lights. When seen by the naked eye, we see predominantly green light at high altitudes, but the aurora comes in a whole range of colors. The aurora happens more frequently during times of high solar activity, so when the.
Sun throws a coronal mass ejection, basically a vast magnetized bubble of high energy particles, in Earth's direction, our planet's global magnetic field deflects the particles and injects them into the Earth's poles. The high energy particles, mainly protons and electrons, slam into the high atmosphere, causing atmospheric gases to generate light. The green light we often see is oxygen emissions and at the same time we'll also see a red emission, that is also oxygen atoms, only at higher altitudes. But Venus doesn't have a global magnetosphere like Earth, so for the past 40 years, astronomers.
Have been trying to understand whether or not Venus can even have auroral activity. Using a high resolution spectrometer attached to the 3.5meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, researchers were able to spot green emissions from the Venusian ionosphere when coronal mass ejections slammed into the planet. However, these emissions were more diffuse all over the Sunfacing side of the planet as there is no magnetosphere to concentrate the highenergy particles at the poles, like Earth. Also, there was no sign of red aurora activity at high altitudes.
Now they are trying to understand what chemical reaction is causing this green glow is it the small quantities of molecular oxygen in the atmosphere, or is something else going on More Earthbased observations and help from Mars Express are needed. This is an exciting result as we are beginning to understand how space weather impacts planets without global magnetic fields, including Mars. All in a day's work for our space weather forecasters. Do you have any wild theories to explain why Venus produces this green glow Let us know in the comments below and please subscribe for more DNews every day of the week.
NASA ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon
Tone Music Narrator Launched in 2007, NASA's five THEMIS spacecraft have now successfully completed their twoyear mission to determine the cause of geomagnetic substorms. Because they are continuing to work perfectly, NASA is redirecting the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits at and around the Moon. This new mission, which is called ARTEMIS, uses some very complex maneuvers over two years to get both spacecraft into position. Although the spacecraft sometimes move far outside the orbit of the Moon, their every move is carefully orchestrated to ease them into position while using very little of their precious fuel.
ARTEMIS 1, in red, had the larger orbit to begin with, so it requires a much more dynamic path to harness its energy. Music Music For a few months, the spacecraft don't even orbit the Earth or the Moon. Instead, they circle the two locations where the the gravity of the Earth and the Moon cancel out exactly. These spots, just inside and just beyond lunar orbit are known as Lagrange points. NASA has several satellites orbiting one such point between the Earth and the Sun. As the Moon orbits the Earth, it passes in and out of the Earth's.
Magnetic field and the millionmile per hour stream of particles emitted by the Sun known as the solar wind. While in these regions, the two ARTEMIS spacecraft will seek evidence turbulence, particle acceleration and magnetic reconnection, three fundamental phenomena that control the nature of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. Finally, in 2011, the ARTEMIS settle into a lunar orbit. Music Employing their full complement of instruments and unique vantage points, the spacecraft will study the vacuum the Moon carves out in the solar wind and the processes that eventually fill this lunar wake.
NASA DeathDefying Comets Explore the Suns Atmosphere
Bell tone Narrator On December 15, 2011, NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured this footage of Come Lovejoy approaching the sun. An hour later, it watched as Lovejoy came around the far side of the sun and began its long trip back to the outer reaches of the solar system. Other NASA spacecraft, such as SOHO and STEREO, also saw Lovejoy's close encounter. Lovejoy marked one of the few times that orbiting telescopes have been able to watch a socalled sun grazing comet survive its trip around the sun. Most are not so lucky.
Besides being interesting to watch, the images and data collected by NASA's solar observing fleet can also help scientists learn more about the sun itself. One of the biggest features that comets help reveal is the sun's magnetic field. Since magnetic fields are invisible, we can only observe them indirectly, like using iron filings over a bar magnet. On the sun, astronomers can look at where hot plasma in the sun's atmosphere is trapped by fields to see their complicated loop structure. But farther away from the sun, where the plasma is less dense, this approach doesn't work. Comet.
Tails, with their ionized gases, are affected by magnetic fields and so they can act as brief tracers. On April 20, 2007, Comet Encke had its tail stripped off abruptly by a coronal mass ejection that carried a strong parcel of magnetic field through the solar system. Even closer to the sun, astronomers were astounded to Comet Lovejoy's tail glowing in extreme ultraviolet light as it approached the sun. They now think the glow is caused by energetic electrons in the sun's corona interacting with oxygen from the comet. The glowing tail followed and illuminated some.
Of the sun's magnetic field lines. Careful analysis of the frames allows scientists to reconstruct where the field lines were and even, to some degree, how strong they were. These comet tracers also illuminate small structures in the sun's upper atmosphere where they are usually too faint to be visible. Continued observation of sun grazing comets will also help astronomers understand how hot material in the sun's corona cools, and where that energy goes. Finally, long term observations of sun grazing comets will help us learn more about the solar wind. Some of.
The particles in the corona are traveling fast enough to escape and travel through the solar system. They begin moving at roughly 250,000 miles an hour, but start accelerating when they reach around a million miles from the sun's surface. By 5 million miles out, they are traveling at up to 1 million miles per hour. The exact mechanism for this acceleration is not known. Comet tails that are blown off by the sun travel with the solar wind, and can act like a dye tracer in a river. Because they are.
Made of different materials than the usual solar wind, they are distinct and easy to pick out. So they can show exactly how the acceleration unfolds. Because we are in a period of high sun grazing comet activity, scientists can expect many more chances to watch these natural research satellites in the coming years. In fact, another large comet is expected to have a close solar pass on November 28, 2013. This comet is roughly the size of HaleBopp, so it should give quite a show. It will also undoubtedly be a treasure.
NASA MAVEN Magnetometer
music I'm Jack Connerney, I work at Goddard here in the magnetometer group. My name is Jared Espley, I'm a space scientist and I work in the Planetary Magnetospheres Lab. Magnetic fields can be measured in a variety of ways, and the most simple way is with a compass. The Earth's field is global in nature, so it has a north pole and a south pole, and wherever you go on the surface of the Earth with a compass, it will point to the north pole. But on Mars if you were to walk around with a compass,.
It would haphazardly point from one anomaly to the other as you walked across the surface, so it's not quite as useful as a compass on Earth. MAVEN is our next mission to Mars, it's an orbiter. It's designed to help us understand what happened to the Martian climate over time, how the climate has evolved over the lifetime of the solar system. We're looking at Mars today, and we're looking at how the solar wind strips away what little atmosphere there is today, and we'll try to roll that back in time and understand what an early Mars might have looked like,.
And whether a magnetic field like the Earth has could have protected that atmosphere from the solar wind. To measure the magnetic field at Mars then, we use an instrument called a magnetometer. MAVEN is carrying a pair of magnetometers. Now the spacecraft itself generates a magnetic field so we have to put those magnetometers as far from the spacecraft as we can, and we've done that by putting the sensors at the very outer end of the solar arrays. The magnetometers, even though they're small, simple looking instruments there's actually a great deal of.
Sophisticated electronics and testing and calibration that goes into building them. They're so sensitive that we ask everyone to use nonmagnetic tools when they're working on them. Even if you had a tiny little fleck of metal that came off of your screwdriver that would be enough to be noticeable and detected by the magnetometer. There's no Maytag repairman in space. So we punish these instruments before we pack them up and launch them, because we're not going to see them again and we have to make darn sure that they're going to work.
JPL Whats Up For November 2011 720p
What's Up for November magnetospheres and a Mars rover launch. Hello and welcome. I'm Jane Houston Jones at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Every magnet generates a magnetic field. And several objects in our solar system generate their own magnetic fields. The magnetic field of a planet extends into space and is called a magnetosphere. The sun, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune all have them. Earth's magnetosphere shields us from the constant barrage of high energy particles that the sun emits the solar wind. A magnetosphere protects our atmosphere and oceans, which.
Would otherwise gradually erode into space. Mars' lack of a magnetosphere may partly be responsible for the thinness of its atmosphere and absent oceans.This month the Mars Science Laboratory, also known as the Curiosity rover, launches on a 23month mission to Mars. Curiosity will study Mars' habitability using the most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. The rover will analyze samples scooped from the soil and drilled from the rocks, along with many other activities. If you stay up late, you'll be able to see the red planet this month. Redorange Mars.
Will be in Leo near the bluewhite star Regulus. Jupiter rules the skies this month. You can't see its magnetosphere, but if you could, its apparent size from Earth would fill a space bigger than the full moon. While Earth's magnetosphere is dominated by its interaction with the sun and the solar wind, Jupiter's is driven largely by the planet's fast rotation. This month try looking for both Mercury and Venus, low on the southwestern horizon just after sunset during the first part of the month. Finally, this is a great time to check out the sun and see sunspots. But only through.
What are The Northern Lights Sci Guide Ep 37 w Jheni Osman Head Squeeze
2013 is a great year to see the Northern Lights also known as the Aurora Borealis because the sun is at the peak of an eleven year solar cycle. But what actually causes them Well, it's actually our feisty sun. Inside the sun's core nuclear fusion bakes hydrogen into helium at ridiculously hot temperatures and even in the outer layer of the sun known as the corona, temperatures can reach up to a million degrees centigrade, making particles zip around at uberfast speeds. And if these particles go over four hundred kilometres per second, they can actually escape.
The sun's gravity and steam out across space in something known as the solar wind. Now fortunately for us we've got a protective mechanism against this solar wind because otherwise all life on earth would be completely fried by its lethal radiation. And this protective mechanism is the earth's magnetic field. Deep inside the earth's iron core there's an intensely hot crystal centre that stirs up the molten iron around it creating magnetic forces. And it's these magnetic forces that create like sort of a protective envelope around the earth called the magnetosphere which deflects most of the solar wind. But just occasionally.
Charged particles manage to sneak through and spiral in at the poles, where they smash into the upper atmosphere. Now to find out where the atmosphere finishes check out James May's tutorial by clicking here. And when these particles smash in to the upper atmosphere, they collide with nitrogen and oxygen ions absorbing their energy. And it's only when these ions relax back into their natural state that they radiate light. And the different colours you see in the northern lights are actually due to the different types of nitrogen and oxygen ions. So nitrogen ions.
Emit red, blue, and purple light oxygen emits red and yellow. And when you see a green glow in the northern lights, its actually it's a really nice mix of nitrogen and oxygen ions together. Now Aurora can also be seen in southern latitudes. They're known as the southern lights or the Aurora Australis because they can be seen down around Australasia, Antarctica and the Southern tip of Latin America, and the best time to see them is between March and September. Aurorae are also found on other planets in our solar system. Jupiter and Saturn both.
EFFECTS OF SOLAR WIND ON THE EARTHS MAGNETIC FIELD.flv
EFFECTS OF SOLAR WIND ON THE EARTHS MAGNETIC FIELD.flv,.
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