What we have discovered is that numerous features of the Kuiper Belt, a field of icy debris beyond the orbit of Neptune, can be understood if the solar system possesses an additional ninth planet that resides well beyond the orbits of the known planets. When we looked at the outer solar system we realized that while most of the very distant objects, these objects beyond Neptune, beyond Pluto. Most of these objects, they all go around the sun and they're all sort of pointing off in all different directions, but the most distant objects all swing.
Out in one direction in a very strange way that shouldn't happen. And we realized that the only way we can get them to all swing in one direction is if there is a massive planet, also very distant in the solar system, keeping them in place while they all go around the sun. And we started looking at this and thinking this must be either a coincidence or it's caused by something else. It can't be caused by a planet because that's crazy. There are no planets out there. I went from trying very hard to be skeptical that what we.
Were talking about was true to suddenly thinking, oh, this actually might even be true. So the object itself likely is more massive than the Earth, probably a little bit less massive than Neptune. It sits right in between that terrestrial to giant icy planet range. Its orbit, unlike the orbits of the known planets, is not nearly circular and planar. Instead, it is exceptionally wide, twenty times bigger than the orbit of Neptune. The orbital period of the Earth is, of course, one year. The orbital period of Jupiter, the big player in our solar system, is about.
10 years. The orbital period of this putative ninth planet, is twenty thousand years. We have nothing like it in the solar system, so it's new for us. It is, however, the most common mass of planets that have been found around all of the other stars. People have always looked at all these other planets in this strange mass range and said, Wow, I wonder what these are I don't know what these are because we don't have anything like it in the solar system. Looks like maybe we do.
There are many telescopes on the Earth that actually have a chance of being able to find it, and I think that many people will be inspired to use their telescopes. I'm really hoping that as we announced this people will start a worldwide search to go find this ninth planet. History shows us that it's a bad idea to consistently say, We have now reached the end of the solar system, and there's nothing beyond what we already know. And all those people who are mad that Pluto was no longer planet.
Solar powered air conditioning
Music playing Narrator Over 50 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions you produce in your home are generated by heating, air conditioning and hot water. In other words keeping your home warm in winter, cool in summer with nice hot water on tap is emitting 2.5 to 5 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year. It also contributes a hefty amount to your electricity bill, between 50 to 60 percent. CSIRO has invented a new solar air conditioning system for Australian homes. This technology solution will reduce Australia's emissions, reduce your energy.
Bills and reduce our demand for electricity and gas. If every home in Australia installed our solar cooling technology it would be the equivalent of saving 15 mega tonnes of CO2 or taking 3.5 million cars off the road. CSIRO's solar air conditioning is an innovative three in one technology that provides hot water, cooling and heating. It uses only a fraction of the electricity of current systems and halves greenhouse gas emissions. The process begins with a typical solar hot water system. Water is heated by solar panels and stored in the hot water tank.
This solar hot water can then be used throughout the home, reducing the need for gas or electricity. A portion of the hot water is diverted into CSIRO's new solar air conditioning unit, which is divided into two compartments. The hot water enters a heat exchanger in the first compartment of the unit. Similar to a car radiator the heat exchanger uses the hot water to heat outside air that has been drawn into the first compartment through the vent. At the same time outside air is also being drawn into the second compartment into a desiccant wheel.
The desiccant wheel is the most critical part of the system. It is used to dry out the air before it goes into the house. Slowly turning the desiccant material in the wheel continuously absorbs moisture in the second compartment and then the absorbent material dries out in the first compartment. The desiccant material is dried out using the hot dry air generated by the heat exchanger. This air is then exhausted outside the home. The dry air from the desiccant wheel flows through an indirect evaporative cooler which creates a stream of cool dry air.
Planet X The new planet in our solar system
Two scientists claim that they have found the best evidence yet that a huge ninth planet exists at the outer limits of the Solar System. It's called Planet X, and it's about 10 times the mass of Earth, or roughly the size of Neptune. The planet supposedly orbits far out from the Sun on a highly elliptical path, which takes 10 to 20,000 years to make one full circuit. And it's way out there too somewhere between 200 and 1,200 times the distance from the Sun to Earth. But don't get too excited yet no one has actually seen this planet. The entire argument.
About its existence is theoretical. It's based on the observations of six objects in the Kuiper Belt, the cloud of icy bodies at the edge of the Solar System. The way these objects move around the Sun seems to indicate that they're being affected by something big. AKA Planet X. That's about all the evidence we have though. Some experts think that six objects is a small sample for such a big claim. Also, the researchers say the chances of this all being a coincidence are 1 in 150,000. Those are pretty good odds but usually scientists like to have a way.
Lower probability of failure around 1 in 1.7 million. Still, experts agree that the models supporting Planet X are strong. And we've used this indirect method to find planets before. Neptune was originally detected by observing anomalies in the movement of Uranus. Plus, having a huge planet like this so far out from the Sun isn't exactly out of the ordinary. Planets of this size are very common in the Universe, so Planet X would make our Solar System much more normal than strange. Now all we need to do is find it. The Large Synoptic.
Energy 101 Solar PV
MR. All right, we all know that the sun's energy creates heat and light. But it can also be converted to make electricity, and lots of it. One technology is called solar photovoltaics or PV for short. You've probably seen PV panels around for years, but recent advancements have greatly improved their efficiency and electrical output. Enough energy from the sun hits the earth every hour to power the planet for an entire year. Here's how it works. You see, sunlight is made up of tiny packets of energy called photons.
These photons radiate out from the sun, and about 93 million miles later, they collide with a semiconductor on a solar panel here on Earth. It all happens at the speed of light. Take a closer look, and you can see the panel is made up of several individual cells, each with a positive and a negative layer, which create an electric field. It works something like a battery. So the photons strike the cell, and their energy frees some electrons in the semiconductor material. The electrons create an electric current, which is harnessed.
By wires connected to the positive and negative sides of the cell. The electricity created is multiplied by the number of cells in each panel and the number of panels in each solar array. Combined, a solar array can make a lot of electricity for your home or business. This rooftop solar array powers this home, and the array on top of this warehouse creates enough electricity for about a thousand homes. OK, there are some obvious advantages to solar PV technology. It produces clean energy. It has no emissions, no moving parts, it doesn't make any noise and it doesn't need water.
Why is the Solar System Flat
Our sun and the earth, and all the planets and moons and dwarf planets and asteroids and comets. The Solar System in short formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a nebulous cloud of swirling gas and dust which coalesced thanks to the irresistibly attractive force of gravity. However, this nebula started off more or less as a big shapeless blob. So how did our solar system end up with all the planets and their moons orbiting in a flat disk I mean, we've all seen the planetary model of the atom,.
Which is definitely wrong when applied to atoms. But it also kind of suggests that planets might revolve around the sun every which way. So is our solar system somehow special in its flatness Or is the planetary model of the atom doubly wrong Well, our solar system definitely isn't alone. Many exoplanets' star systems are flat, a lot of galaxies are flat, black hole accretion disks are flat, Saturn's rings are flat, etc. So why, when there's all of 3D space to fill, does the universe have this preference for flatness.
The answer has to do with two things collisions and the fact that we live in three dimensions. Bear with me. Anytime a bunch of objects held together by gravity are zooming and circling around, their individual paths are nearly impossible to predict. And yet, collected together, they have a single total amount that they spin about their center of mass. It may be hard to figure out exactly what direction that rotation is in, but the mathematics implies there must be some plane in which the cloud, taken as a whole, spins.
Now, in two dimensions, a cloud of particles rotating in a plane is flat by definition, it's in two dimensions. But in three dimensions, even though the rotation of the cloud is given by one plane, particles can whiz around far up and down from that plane. As the particles bump into each other, all the up and down motion tends to cancel out. It's energy lost in crashing and clumping. Yet, the whole mass must continue spinning inexorably, because in our universe, the total amount of spinning in any isolated system.
Always stays the same. So over time, through collisions and crashes, the cloud loses its loft and flattens into a spinning, roughly 2 dimensional disk shape, like a solar system or a spiral galaxy. However, in 4 spacial dimensions, the math works out such that there can be two separate and complementary planes of rotation, which is both really really hard for our 3Dthinking brains to picture and also means there's no up and down direction in which particles lose energy by collisions. So a cloud of particles can continue being just that. a cloud.
How to Supplement Solar Energy with a Wind Turbine
Here it is on the evening of December 22nd, the day after the Winter Solstice. And the downside of the Winter Solstice it it's a very dark and gloomy time of year. and so there's just not a lot of solar production. It's just been really dark and gloomy all day. and actually cleared up a little in the evening, but. To off set some of that winter production,.er, some of that winter need. Sorry about the wind Let me turn out of the wind My ultimate goal is to be able to run, the entire house and our cars and everything, off grid, indefinitely.
But,. I can do that in theory, 9months out of the year but darn, December, January and February are too dark and gloomy and there's just not enough sun to do it all during those times. So I'm offsetting the solar production with a wind turbine experimenting with this. I've just kind of hastily thrown up with jumper cables run it to a gridtie inverter that I've got up here. 1000 watt gridtie inverter. Which feeds directly back into the house. It works great! The only problem is it's not that windy here. Um, but right now it's pretty windy.
So it's been making a few watts today. I've seen it as high as 45 watts, which is actually kind of lousy. If this was up another 20 feet, it would probably make 10x that, so 400 watts maybe. And that's pretty significant, especially if it's running all day and night. So anyway. We can't really depend. I would ideally like to put it on my housetop. And actually put turbines up there. Maybe even 4 or 5 of them. All work together. But the neighborhood, the way it is, that's frowned upon.
VERY STRONGLY, so. Oh well. I don't want to upset the neighbors. I want to make this experiment work with still pleasing everyone else. Without anyone noticing that I'm saving energy. So. Anyway. That's my experiment in Wind and Solar. So. I'll have to come up with another way to make some power. A renewable way. I don't want to burn wood. I don't want to burn gas. We've already canceled our natural gas service and we don't buy gasoline anymore everything's electric now. So. That's my experiment. In renewable energy.
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