# Solar Power Efficiency Graph

## Capture an IV Curve of a Solar Panel Solar Module Test Part 1 of 2

Today we're going to capture an IV curve of a solar panel using our new N6784A SMU module. It's a fourquadrant power supply and can be used in the 1U high compact system mainframe or it could be used in a benchfriendly DC power analyzer. For our demonstration today, we've installed the SMU module into channel one of the DC power analyzer, and we're using channel two to power our LED light source. Our LED light source is bright enough to create some photovoltaic energy in our solar panel, which will use the SMU module to capture both the voltage and current.

We've written a simple demonstration program to plot our IV curve. We start at zero volts and we make a current measurement from the SMU. We increase the voltage and make a current measurement. We continue to do that until we step all the way through our IV curve. From our IV curve, we can make several important measurements. We can capture the shortcircuit current, which is the true shortcircuit current. If we tried to make the same measurement with a multimeter, it would be a little bit low because of the burden voltage of the multimeter.

We can also measure the open circuit voltage of the solar panel, we can calculate the fill factor, as well as locate the max power point. Now, if we dim the light source, we can make another IV trace with lower illumination, and we can repeat this. Lower the light source and capture a curve. With our family of curves, you can see with lower levels of illumination, it really affects the first part of the IV curve more than the second half of the IV curve. This is common with solar panels.

Being that this is a fourquadrant power supply, we can actually extend our measurements into the adjacent quadrants. So we've started a new IV curve into the adjacent quadrants. So above this axis the SMU is sinking current, below this axis we're sourcing current. Likewise, on this axis we're sourcing a positive voltage and on this side of the axis we're sourcing a negative voltage. So in this particular example, we started with a negative voltage, we slightly increase it, measure the current and repeat that until we go all the way through our IV curve.

### Capture an IV Curve of a Solar Panel Solar Module Test Part 2 of 2

Today we're going to look at temperature and how it affects the IV curve. We're also going to look at how to measure and record the temperature. In a previous demo we looked at light and how light affected the IV curve. As we lowered the illumination, we saw that there was less current produced in the solar panel, causing a dramatic effect to the first half of the IV curve. In today's demo, we're going to change the temperature, and as we change the temperature, we'll see a change in voltage on the IV curve. As we increase the temperature, we expect.

To see a decrease in voltage, and we'll see a dramatic change to the second half of the IV curve. We'll be using the new N6784A General Purpose SMU module to capture the IV curve. Let's heat up the solar panel and capture another IV curve. As you can see, the voltage decreases as the temperature increases. We can repeat this process. Since temperature affects the IV curve, we have included it in our demo program. To measure the temperature, we have attached a 10K thermistor to the panel. We will use.

The 34972A LXI Data Acquisition Switch Unit to record the temperature. The 34972A can easily be expanded to measure multiple points of temperature, voltage, current, or resistance up to sixty 2wire measurements per mainframe. Another nice feature is the 34972A can be controlled and monitored via the front panel, USB, or LAN. We can add WiFi using a pocket access point. The pocket access point is connected to both a LAN connector and it gets its power from the USB port. The 34972A provides a web page, which we can now access wirelessly using a standard browser.

#### Stanford students build stateoftheart solar racecar

SOUND Stanford University. MUSIC gtgt The World's Solar Challenge is a 2,000 mile race across the Australian outback. Where 47 teams from 26 countries compete to travel across the Outback as quickly as they can using sun power alone. We actually start from the ground up and build a brand new vehicle from scratch. So, while some teams will use old designs, the Stanford team tries to build a radically new vehicle every two years. gtgt It is a really fun engineering challenge just because it's so big and covers so many different fields.

So there are real challenges in the computer science. Real challenges in mechanical engineering and electrical engineering aspects. And it's just really fun to work in a collaborative environment. MUSIC gtgt Not only does our team do all the design work, we have almost all the machinery that we need to actually manufacture the entire car itself here on campus. We'll have students manufacturing carbon fiber composites. All of our electronic boards are designed and assembled by students. We even have CNC machines that allow us to manufacture all of the lightweight aluminum components for the vehicle.

With that capability our team has a lot of freedom to really advance the boundaries of clean vehicles. MUSIC This year our team will use prototype film for solar panels. If you were to take a microscope and look at this film, you'll actually see there's small little ridges that run along the film, so when the sun is at low angles in the sky, the ridges capture more light that would otherwise bounce off. MUSIC This year our team also spent a lot of time optimizing and designing the air body of the vehicle.

This is the first time that our team has actually able to do wind tunnel testing on our vehicle. The facility that we went to, the customer before us, the customers after us were all stock car racing teams and a lot of the expertise that goes into developing those cars transfers directly into our car. MUSIC gtgt We wanted to make a car that was very reliable. Just because the race is so long and so grueling. You might have only one or two cars that can make it through the entire race without some sort of major breakdown.

Gtgt The road will be raced in Australia is actually like much nastier than most roads in the state. They're very narrow two lane. You have a lot of rubble on them. A lot of potholes you can have things like dust devils, really high side winds, fire tornadoes. So, if your car is not stable in really high cross winds, if your suspension falls apart under really high dynamic loads, you're not going to make it very far. MUSIC gtgt When I'm driving I usually get a prompt from the chase vehicle to set a cruise speed.

So I set that cruise speed on my console and then from there my job is to look for anything on the road and we have no play in the steering. So the steering is very immediate. So it demands a lot more attention than a normal car. gtgt The true value of the project is really the education that the engineers and students get on it. You're never done. There are always more improvements you can make and when you have to make something that's efficient that's way more than.

Making something that just works because you really have to understand every little part of it at a very deep level. gtgt Going to 2013, it's tough to tell who is going to be the top team in the challenge class, but the Stanford team with our focus on making the vehicle very reliable, but also efficient we're relatively confident especially with the testing we've done so far that we should be able to beat the vast majority of the teams in the World's Solar challenge and place somewhere in the top five this year.

#### Why Teslas Powerwall Battery Is Amazing

All of humanity just won a really important victory in our battle to lower the CO2 emissions that are causing climate change. Tesla CEO Elon Musk introduced the world to the Powerwall, a wallmounted battery for your house which aims to accelerate our transition to clean solar and windpower. Before the powerwall, there was no way to store the energy generated from the panels that capture sunlight on our roofs. So during the day they could give you the power you needed, but at night, you had to rely on the grid, which gets most of its.

Electricity from coal, natural gas, and nuclear reactors. There had been some early home batteries out there, but nothing that was nearly this affordable. But Tesla, which has built thousands of large, lithiumion battery packs for its growing electric car business, was able to produce a similar battery for buildings at a scale that dropped the production costs dramatically. The lowest capacity model will cost just \$3,000. And this is the first generation of the productbefore Tesla's even completed building its massive new Gigafactory, or any real competitors have entered the market, events that will surely push the price down.

Even further, while increasing the energy storage capacity of the Powerwall. Here's how it works. When the sun is out, solar panels will power your house and charge the Powerwall at the same time. And when the sun goes down, this charged battery will kick in to meet most or all of your electricity needs until the sun comes back up again the next morning. This is gamechanging. More and more people will go completely offgrid. Every building whether it's a home, office, business, warehouse, factory they can all.

Install solar panels and some Powerwalls and instantly see their fossil fuelgenerated electricity needs drop significantly. Not every building will be able to go completely solarpowered, but most will get pretty close, especially as our appliances become more and more energy efficient. And it gets even better. The powerwall will be connected to the Internet and the rest of the energy grid. Here in Southern California, and most other heavily populated places, the electricity company charges us a lot more when we use electricity during peak timethat's in the afternoon and early evening when the temperatures are warmest and most of us are.

Home and still awake. The Tesla battery is smart, and knows when electricity is cheapest, so that's when it will draw from the grid to charge itself. And then, during peak time when you need electricity, the battery will power the house. Sometimes, you'll be able to sell back unused power to the utility company during peak time to even make a profit. It's basically going to make each individual building its own power station. Overnight, Tesla seems less a futuristic car company, and more like the man who inspired the company's name, a revolutionary electricity engineer named Nikola.

Thanks for watching. If you liked this tutorial, help the conversation spread by hitting that thumbs up button. For TDC, I'm Bryce Plank. on the screen to watch more TDC, like our tutorial running down ten possible clean energy sources of the future or the ten fastest electric cars on the road. You can click to go back on our channel or take us up on our offer for a free audiobook of your choice from Audible, like the soontobereleased profile of Elon Musk. You have to put your credit card number in, but you get to try the service without charge for a whole month,.

#### Solar or Electric Cars Industrial Revolutions CNBC International

The battery runs out too quickly there's no where to charge it and it's too expensive it's been a bumpy start for the allelectric car with some survey saying only five percent of drivers are considering switching away from traditional gas guzzlers Can the electric car overcome these roadblocks Buckle up Industrial Revolutions gets behind the wheel Every day a thousand more cars join the congested roads of New Delhi pumping more carbon onto already smoggy streets experts warn India could see an extra 140 million vehicles by 2035 So, could the electric car be the solution.

It was specifically designed for lowcost but yet not be a boring vehicle and we have kept the cost under ten thousand dollars Launched a year ago Mahindra Reva's e2o is one of ten electric models on the global market it can travel 100 kilometers on a single charge We keep about 10 kilometres of charge in reserve that the customer cannot automatically use when the battery runs out of charge the customer has to contact the control center and control center will release the last ten kilometers and thereby cannot.

Accidentally and get stranded on the road With only five hundred e2o's sold so far it's clear there's a long road ahead to winning over skeptical consumers But maybe the future isn't an electric one Maybe the answer comes from the sky Meet Stella What makes Stella special is that it's the world's first family call on solar energy it's a car that actually provides energy instead of just using it Students at Eindhoven University built the four seater car to compete in the world solar challenge which they went on to win.

With it's aerodynamic shape and lightweight it can travel 400 kilometers on a single charge But what happens if the Sun doesn't shine It's going to stop Stella when it's cloudy because we have a really large battery in the car and essentially you can see it as a normal electric car but you have solar panel as range extender We saw electric vehicles coming up which are very practical but have a limited range but on the other hand we saw solar cars which have a huge range but are not.

#### Wind Power V3.0 by Thames Kosmos

Harness power out of thin air with the new and improved Wind Power 10 exciting experiments teach you the fundamentals of wind power technology Helping you to build your own 3foottall wind turbine to generate electricity Experiment with wind power. and optimize the performance of your turbine. by adjusting the angles of the newly designed blades Use the power of the wind to charge your battery Then use that same battery to power your other models Discover the growing importance of renewable energy in powering our modern world An allnew, 32page fullcolor manual.

#### Making Efficiency Measurements of LED Drivers Using IntegraVision Power Analyzer

Hi, I'm Blake Vermeer. I'm an RD Engineer here at Keysight Technologies and today I will be showing you how to make efficiency measurements on the this LED driver demo board. So I have Channel 1 hooked up to the input, to the LED driver, and Channel 2 hooked up to the actual output of the LED driver so I can measure efficiency of the driver. I'm using my bench power supply over here to control the brightness of the LEDs as well. So the first thing we need to do is we need to start up efficiency measurements here.

So I go to analyze current efficiency mode and since we're measuring DC power on both Channel 1 and Channel 2, we need to set the trigger to be line trigger for both Channel 1 and Channel 2. After we have done that, we can see how much power the LED driver is taking in and how much power it's outputting to the actual LEDs. You can see right now that the LED driver is not very efficient at all. That's because we are driving the LEDs at their lowest brightness. If I go over here and I increase the brightness.

#### Wind Turbine Power Curve description

So here we're looking at a typical wind turbine power curve. You can see it's broken up into 3 different regions. Region 1 is typically the region below the cutin wind speed, where the turbine is not producing any power. In region 2 the turbine ramps up from zero to what's called the rated power capacity. And this occurs at the rated wind speed. Region 3 is where there's constant power being produced by the wind turbine through pitching effects of the blades, so as to not overdrive the generator. You can see there's not much value in trying to go much more below.

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