How to Install Solar Panels Solar Energy System Sizes
Now, we'll talk a little bit about the sizing of these systems. It depends on what you want to actually run, and of course how much money you have. We're going to go on the smaller side, just today. If you're trying to power your whole house, and you had air conditioning, and stoves, and lighting, and computers, and the normal things a normal house has, and you wanted to run it all by solar, you'd be using quite a few of these, or these, and some of the systems we install have up to seventy panels or more, and unfortunately,.
They're maybe a thousand dollars each, so you can see the price goes up, with the amount of load you wish to take over. In our system here, my plan is to take my home office off the grid, and just power up some laptops, and entertainment equipment, so we're going to be using a fairly small system. One or two of these hundred and forty watt panels, charging a bank of perhaps four six volt batteries, and that will give us enough power to run quite a few lights, my laptop, and some entertainment equipment, from the power of the sun.
How to Install Solar Panels Battery Banks for Solar Energy
Now we come to our battery bank for our Solar system. This one is made up of six volt cells combined in different ways to get the voltage we need for our individual inverters. We're going to be using the big Zantrax 1,000 watt this time, so we'll need two six volt cells, in series, to come up with that twelve volts. If you take your battery and connect a positive to a negative terminal that leaves you with a positive and negative terminal and you can get your twelve volts here. If you connect four batteries in series, positive to negative,.
You come up with twentyfour volts. And if you needed a fortyeight volt system, which is not uncommon, you'd simply expand and use more batteries. But for a twelve volt system we'll just use two. And, they're really the most dangerous part of the system. If you look down inside there, you can see a liquid and that liquid is sulfuric acid and will really seriously burn you and that's why we have a base here, Baking Soda, and if you get that acid in your eyes or in your clothing you can neutralize it with this. So, very.
Important to have this for safety. We can get a look at some of that acid here with the hydrometer, this is what you measure the actual specific gravity of the acid inside. And you can see we have several of these disks floating. We have about three disks floating with one at the bottom. So we know that this two batteries, or at least this battery, is about seventyfive percent charged. So, we're going to be very careful with that acid and stick this back here in our little cup. It's also important to note that the gases that.
How to Install Solar Panels Solar Power Balance of System
Now we have our balance, we come to the balance of system where we tell what else is needed to actually make all this work together. So to actually get our solar system installed we of course have to mount it on the roof, which takes some rails, and special mounting clips. We'll also be powering up one or more types of inverters. We'll be using a charge controller. We've got various sizes of wire to make the system work as well as some fuses and of course a different styles of batteries. So the balance of system, or BOS really depends.
How to Install Solar Panels Tools for Installing Solar Energy System
Now let's get a look at the tools we'll need to safely install this job. Well, we've got a couple of noncontact AC and DC warning beepers here. We've got a AC wiggy that tests for voltages up to 600 volts on the AC side. We've got a standard digital volt home meter for various testing purposes, and the more standard tools razor knifes, screwdrivers, diagonal cutters, linesmen pliers for twisting wires, smaller pliers, and of course the wire stripper's always handy. I like to have a level just in case we're mounting some stuff.
And the things you may be able to do without are some of these large. Boy these are big, these are for making battery cables. If you've got the crimps you make your battery cable very professional. But they're kind of expensive, you can do without that for a home installed system. And then, of course, we're going to use some miscellaneous hardware to mount our rails to the roof. We'll have some screws and more crimps to get the batteries and other wiring completed, as well as possibly a little bit of spray paint just to touch up some of.
How to Install Solar Panels Wiring Fuses to Solar Panel DC Side
Alright, now we're ready to wire up our fuses and charge controller on the solar panel DC side. We've got our charge controller ready to go, we're just going to slip our BX wire, which I've actually insulated one of the tips, here, so we don't spark our machine. We'll feed that wire through a strainer leaf and put another little strainer leafer, here, on our BX. Tighten that up a bit. So you can see with that little spark there, that we do have power and we should use some.
Kind of fusing in here just so, if something goes wrong and the fuse blows out instead of the electronics. So, we've got a standard car fuse, this one's rated 40 amps at 32 volts. Really, all we need is about a 15 amp fuse, here, but this should give us some measure of protection. We're going to wire this through on the positive side. We've got a fuse holder that matches our fuse, and we'll just strip off a little bit of this insulation here. We'll form a little edge, a crimp, on this so it will loop under our device nicely. Got.
Screw terminals, here, and we're just going to slip that positive wire right under one of our terminals. In a larger installation this will be done in a separate box, but for a small one, this should be fine. Now, we need to run the other side of the positive wire to our charge controller and we need a little piece of wire for that. So now we've got our little jumper wire ready to go, we're going to strip that off and connect it to the other side of our fuse. Demo So.
How to Install Solar Panels Solar Energy System Fuse Box
Alright, we've brought our positive and negative wires from the charge controller and they're going through a new fuse and they're going to go down to the battery. Let's just take a look at this style of fuse box. It's a little more advanced and, in fact, we have two sets of fuses with a switch, so we can make safe and turn off the whole device and we're still being protected by some smaller 30 amp fuses, here, which should keep us safe. And that is how that works. We'll turn it off and go ahead and connect our batteries. So now we've.
Got our battery here, let's take one of our connections off. Let's see, positive is red, negative is white, or black in this case, I see. There we go. This also has the wires that run out to our charge controller connected, or excuse me to our inverter connected. So, we've got several wires coming off these. Now, we're ready to charge our batteries with the solar. And now we're ready to put our fuse back in this holder which will connect the panel to the charge controller and start charging the batteries.
How to Install Solar Panels Mounting Rails on Roof for Solar Panels
All right, we're getting ready to mount our rails up here, and I've got some blocks of wood. Pressure treated lumber already mounted, from one of my last solar projects, so we'll reuse those when we can. This roof is over the laundry room, and it's facing almost directly south, which is perfect for a solar exposure. Not too difficult for that top end. Let's get some down at the bottom now. Drill a couple of holes here, so we've got a couple more blocks of wood, just to rise this up off the roof. Give a.
How to Install Solar Panels How to Connect an Inverter for a Solar Energy System
We've got our battery wires wired up to a quick disconnect here and we're just going to verify that we have the right voltage so we don't toast our tasty equipment. Fourteen volts is a good number for a fully charged battery. So, we're going to go ahead and plug that into our inverter. Quick disconnects are polarized so we have no trouble with that and we should be able to turn the device on and see something working. There we have our readouts. Now, we should be able to plug something in and get it to work. Let's try a drill.
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