New Lab for Solar Cell Fabrication at Mount Holyoke College
Alexi Arango, Assistant Professor of Physics The entire facility is custom designed by myself with the intent of making the fabrication process as facile as possible. The innovation with this system is that everything is in one place. So we have three interconnected glove boxes, and you start at one glove box, with a particular process, and then you move from glove box to glove box in order to complete the fabrication process. Alyssa Goncalves '11 Physics Major We're going to be using chloroform to dilute our quantities of cadmium selenide quantum dots. We want to spin films of cadmium selenide and we want different.
Amounts of cadmium selenide on different films. Arango My research focuses on thirdgeneration solar cells. And thirdgeneration solar cells employ new semiconducting materials, like quantum dots, molecular dyes, metal oxides like white paint. Kathy Aidala, Clare Boothe Luce Assistant Professor of Physics Alexi's lab is well set up to make layered structures with different materials. I'm interested in some of those fundamental properties of the, the electronic properties of these materials that go into making solar cells. Arango Our alternative semiconductors can potentiallywe don't know for sure result in dramatically higher efficiency and dramatically lower manufacturing costs..
Aidala You really need to know some of the details about how charges move through those materials. So I can actually look at combinations of those materials and see, well, how easy is it for the electron to get from one type of material to another type of material, for example. And then that might later on affect the efficiency of the device. Janice Hudgings, professor and chair of physics We can build the device, we can test it and figure out what's wrong with it, think about how to do it better, and then build the next one.
It's great for students to be able to see that whole process, and it opens up this whole other realm of sort of possibilities for engineering and physics questions we can ask. Arango Our longterm vision is to be able to deploy a technology in innovative ways that no one has thought of before. We're talking about printing on large fabricsa footballfield size solar module, essentially. And then carrying that up to a skyscraper and rolling it off the edge of the skyscraper. Like an instantaneous power plant, essentially, from solar.
How Solar Energy Is Converted To Electricity Through Solar Panels
Sunlight is made up of tiny packets of energy, called photons. Every minute, enough of this energy reaches the earth to meet the world's energy demand for a whole year. Photovoltaic panels consists of many solar cells, these are materials made like silicon, one of the most common elements on earth. The individual cell is designed with a positive and a negative layer to create an electric field, just like in the battery. As photons are absorb in the cell, their energy causes electrons to come free. The electrons move towards the bottom of the cell, and exit through the connecting wire. This flow of.
Printing Australias largest solar cells
Dr Scott Watkins We're really pleased to commission what is now Australia's largest facility for printing thin film solar cells. This equipment that has been purchased over the last few months and commissioned in our labs here in Melbourne will enable us to print A3 size solar cells. We've rapidly scaled up making our devices from fingernail size in the lab to A3 size devices that are fully printed now. And at this size we're definitely up there with the best in the world. In the short term we're looking for applications in consumer devices.
NASA Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell
Music The silicon germanium quantum well solar cell is a combination of different technologies, one based on our silicon germanium technology and the other is based on the quantum well and both of these increase the efficiency of the solar cell. The highest efficiency in a solar cell is when you have a single crystalline material and this is unique because this single crystalline silicon germanium, so you have higher mobility because the germanium has three times the mobility of silicon and also because you have a quantum well. When you have a quantum well, you confine the electrons to one plane and the only way that you can.
Create a quantum well is to precisely control the layer thicknesses when you build up your solar cell. And this is something that we can do in our lab. Another thing that makes this unique is that it's built on the sapphire substrate, so you can actually light it from the back side. Unlike conventional silicon solar cell, the light isn't lost by the conductive layer. That means higher efficiency. NASA would use that on spacecraft or any power application because if you have a more efficient solar cell that means you need less of them.
And so you have less weight and it takes up less volume. The commercial sector would also benefit because you can have smaller devices that have the same power requirements as a silicon solar cell but the solar cell would be much smaller. We knew something like this could replace that because it's a whole different structure it's a whole different way of looking at it. And so the silicon germanium technology has resulted in six patents so far and it and numerous different applications, so some of our other Research efforts are also based.
Why Teslas Powerwall Battery Is Amazing
All of humanity just won a really important victory in our battle to lower the CO2 emissions that are causing climate change. Tesla CEO Elon Musk introduced the world to the Powerwall, a wallmounted battery for your house which aims to accelerate our transition to clean solar and windpower. Before the powerwall, there was no way to store the energy generated from the panels that capture sunlight on our roofs. So during the day they could give you the power you needed, but at night, you had to rely on the grid, which gets most of its.
Electricity from coal, natural gas, and nuclear reactors. There had been some early home batteries out there, but nothing that was nearly this affordable. But Tesla, which has built thousands of large, lithiumion battery packs for its growing electric car business, was able to produce a similar battery for buildings at a scale that dropped the production costs dramatically. The lowest capacity model will cost just $3,000. And this is the first generation of the productbefore Tesla's even completed building its massive new Gigafactory, or any real competitors have entered the market, events that will surely push the price down.
Even further, while increasing the energy storage capacity of the Powerwall. Here's how it works. When the sun is out, solar panels will power your house and charge the Powerwall at the same time. And when the sun goes down, this charged battery will kick in to meet most or all of your electricity needs until the sun comes back up again the next morning. This is gamechanging. More and more people will go completely offgrid. Every building whether it's a home, office, business, warehouse, factory they can all.
Install solar panels and some Powerwalls and instantly see their fossil fuelgenerated electricity needs drop significantly. Not every building will be able to go completely solarpowered, but most will get pretty close, especially as our appliances become more and more energy efficient. And it gets even better. The powerwall will be connected to the Internet and the rest of the energy grid. Here in Southern California, and most other heavily populated places, the electricity company charges us a lot more when we use electricity during peak timethat's in the afternoon and early evening when the temperatures are warmest and most of us are.
Home and still awake. The Tesla battery is smart, and knows when electricity is cheapest, so that's when it will draw from the grid to charge itself. And then, during peak time when you need electricity, the battery will power the house. Sometimes, you'll be able to sell back unused power to the utility company during peak time to even make a profit. It's basically going to make each individual building its own power station. Overnight, Tesla seems less a futuristic car company, and more like the man who inspired the company's name, a revolutionary electricity engineer named Nikola.
Thanks for watching. If you liked this tutorial, help the conversation spread by hitting that thumbs up button. For TDC, I'm Bryce Plank. on the screen to watch more TDC, like our tutorial running down ten possible clean energy sources of the future or the ten fastest electric cars on the road. You can click to go back on our channel or take us up on our offer for a free audiobook of your choice from Audible, like the soontobereleased profile of Elon Musk. You have to put your credit card number in, but you get to try the service without charge for a whole month,.
Sprayon Solar Panels Science Nation
MILES O'BRIEN Harnessing the power of the sun, its a bright idea with enormous potential, but how do we get there BRIAN KORGEL There's plenty of power in the sun to meet the energy needs of the world. We haven't figured out how to get the ratio right of cost and efficiencies. Put it in there and spray. MILES O'BRIEN This spray paint could be part of the future of solar power. With support from the National Science Foundation, chemical engineer Brian Korgel and his team at the University of Texas are developing spray on solar cells. They're being tested as alternatives to the.
Sometimes bulky, fragile devices now used to capture the suns rays. BRIAN KORGEL These are nanocrystals suspended in a solvent and you take this material and you can deposit it as you would an ink. These are actual devices, test devices made of the solar ink and deposited on plastic. So these are devices like our sandwiches where you have the metal contact on the bottom and metal contact on the top to extract the charge out and the middle part absorbs the light. MILES O'BRIEN The goal is to use these nanoparticles to coat large layered solar collectors that are cheap.
And flexible, even printing them in a way newspapers are. VAHID AKHAVAN You want to produce something that's very userfriendly. And the final product would look something like, ideally, it would look something like todays shingle MILES O'BRIEN But there are many challenges before youll be able to buy these nanoparticles solar shingles to power your house. BRIAN KORGEL They work but we need to get the efficiency better. We'd have made devices that have an efficiency of 3. And to be commercial, you really need to be at about 10.
VAHID AKHAVAN You turn on the light and then place the devices in the beam of the light and make a measurement of the currentthe efficiency of the last device that we test is a little over 1 efficient MILES O'BRIEN Korgel says this sustainable energy research resonates with just about everyone. BRIAN KORGEL When they hear that somebody has come up with a way to make a solar cell by spray painting it, they get really excited. MILES O'BRIEN In this lab there are plenty of new ideas under the sun.
6. Physics Photoelectric Effect Quantum Efficiency of a Metal Surface by Ashish Arora
Let us discuss about the quantum efficiency of a metal surface. in the previous section we already discussed that when a radiation beam incident, on a metal surface. then it is not necessary that. every ejecting, photon, or every capable photon which will incident on the metal surface which is having photon energy more then work function. will eject an electron. because it may be possible that when the photon is absorbed. electron may loose its maximum energy in the. internal collisions, and it will not left over with sufficient amount of energy to overcome the work function. then no electron will be ejected.
So here we can write that, it may be possible. that. all photons. in an incident radiation beam. and this beam which is capable to eject electrons that means if here h nu is given more then the work function. we can say it may be possible that all photons in an incident radiation beam. will not eject. electrons. from the surface. so we can write that, in general. number of electrons ejected. will be less then. the number of photons. to the number of photons. incident on surface. and this parameter is mathematically accounted.
In terms of quantum efficiency of the metal surface. which is defined as, here we can define. quantum efficiency. of metal surface. as. this denoted by the symbol eita. which is written as number of electrons. ejected divided by total number of. photons incident on the surface we multiplied by hundred and this will give us the quantum efficiency in, percentage. and the reason we already discussed that when the photon is absorbed by an electron. and if it looses. its energy, in the internal collision it looses most of its energy in.
The internal collisions such that it will not left over with the sufficient amount of energy to over come the work function. no electron will come out. and when there is a continuous radiation beam their might be some photons, which when absorbed electrons may not come out so we can always say that number of ejected electrons will be less then the number of photons incident. this is accounted in terms of quantum efficiency of the metal surface. so if quantum efficiency is 75 percent. that means out of hundred photons incident.
Turn Heat Into Power With Industrial Efficiency Pew
SUBJECT New York City, October, 2012 Hurricane Sandy left more than eight million customers without electricity. But in some hospitals, universities, waste treatment plants and residential complexes, the lights stayed on. How'd they keep the power running The answer to that question has big implications for America's manufacturing sector, and for any institution that needs a reliable, efficient, and cost saving source of electricity. Today, nearly 23 of the fuel that is used to generate power escapes as waste heat, usually through cooling towers. However, if we recapture that lost energy, we can use it to.
Create more electricity or to warm or cool nearby buildings. We can do that by using proven technologies that are nearly twice as efficient as most systems, such as combined heat and power, or waste heat recovery, to improve industrial productivity. And combined heat and power is highly resilient. It proved its reliability after Hurricane Sandy and Katrina, and the blackout that swept across the Midwest and Northeast in 2003. Sounds pretty good, right That's why many American factories, hospitals, colleges and commercial buildings rely on combined heat and power. So many, in fact, that it already generates 12 of.
QEX12M Photovoltaic Module Quantum Efficiency Measurement System
The Q E X 12 M is an easytouse turnkey solution for photovoltaic module analysis It enables you to measure the quantum efficiency of have any cell at any location on the module The system provides a comfortable work environment and is easy to load. The system features a light blocking enclosure The light intensity can be adjusted to optimize the measurement conditional The voltage bias can be adjusted to bring the device under test to shortcircuit conditions. Computercontrolled XY positioning of the small probe beam enables exact measurement have any point in the testing area.
How Can Quantum Techniques Improve The Efficiency Of Solar Cells
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Solar Cells Lecture 1 Introduction To Photovoltaics
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