# Solar Panel Efficiency Curve

## Capture an IV Curve of a Solar Panel Solar Module Test Part 1 of 2

Today we're going to capture an IV curve of a solar panel using our new N6784A SMU module. It's a fourquadrant power supply and can be used in the 1U high compact system mainframe or it could be used in a benchfriendly DC power analyzer. For our demonstration today, we've installed the SMU module into channel one of the DC power analyzer, and we're using channel two to power our LED light source. Our LED light source is bright enough to create some photovoltaic energy in our solar panel, which will use the SMU module to capture both the voltage and current.

We've written a simple demonstration program to plot our IV curve. We start at zero volts and we make a current measurement from the SMU. We increase the voltage and make a current measurement. We continue to do that until we step all the way through our IV curve. From our IV curve, we can make several important measurements. We can capture the shortcircuit current, which is the true shortcircuit current. If we tried to make the same measurement with a multimeter, it would be a little bit low because of the burden voltage of the multimeter.

We can also measure the open circuit voltage of the solar panel, we can calculate the fill factor, as well as locate the max power point. Now, if we dim the light source, we can make another IV trace with lower illumination, and we can repeat this. Lower the light source and capture a curve. With our family of curves, you can see with lower levels of illumination, it really affects the first part of the IV curve more than the second half of the IV curve. This is common with solar panels.

Being that this is a fourquadrant power supply, we can actually extend our measurements into the adjacent quadrants. So we've started a new IV curve into the adjacent quadrants. So above this axis the SMU is sinking current, below this axis we're sourcing current. Likewise, on this axis we're sourcing a positive voltage and on this side of the axis we're sourcing a negative voltage. So in this particular example, we started with a negative voltage, we slightly increase it, measure the current and repeat that until we go all the way through our IV curve.

### Capture an IV Curve of a Solar Panel Solar Module Test Part 2 of 2

Today we're going to look at temperature and how it affects the IV curve. We're also going to look at how to measure and record the temperature. In a previous demo we looked at light and how light affected the IV curve. As we lowered the illumination, we saw that there was less current produced in the solar panel, causing a dramatic effect to the first half of the IV curve. In today's demo, we're going to change the temperature, and as we change the temperature, we'll see a change in voltage on the IV curve. As we increase the temperature, we expect.

To see a decrease in voltage, and we'll see a dramatic change to the second half of the IV curve. We'll be using the new N6784A General Purpose SMU module to capture the IV curve. Let's heat up the solar panel and capture another IV curve. As you can see, the voltage decreases as the temperature increases. We can repeat this process. Since temperature affects the IV curve, we have included it in our demo program. To measure the temperature, we have attached a 10K thermistor to the panel. We will use.

The 34972A LXI Data Acquisition Switch Unit to record the temperature. The 34972A can easily be expanded to measure multiple points of temperature, voltage, current, or resistance up to sixty 2wire measurements per mainframe. Another nice feature is the 34972A can be controlled and monitored via the front panel, USB, or LAN. We can add WiFi using a pocket access point. The pocket access point is connected to both a LAN connector and it gets its power from the USB port. The 34972A provides a web page, which we can now access wirelessly using a standard browser.

#### Making Efficiency Measurements of LED Drivers Using IntegraVision Power Analyzer

Hi, I'm Blake Vermeer. I'm an RD Engineer here at Keysight Technologies and today I will be showing you how to make efficiency measurements on the this LED driver demo board. So I have Channel 1 hooked up to the input, to the LED driver, and Channel 2 hooked up to the actual output of the LED driver so I can measure efficiency of the driver. I'm using my bench power supply over here to control the brightness of the LEDs as well. So the first thing we need to do is we need to start up efficiency measurements here.

So I go to analyze current efficiency mode and since we're measuring DC power on both Channel 1 and Channel 2, we need to set the trigger to be line trigger for both Channel 1 and Channel 2. After we have done that, we can see how much power the LED driver is taking in and how much power it's outputting to the actual LEDs. You can see right now that the LED driver is not very efficient at all. That's because we are driving the LEDs at their lowest brightness. If I go over here and I increase the brightness.

#### Solar or Electric Cars Industrial Revolutions CNBC International

The battery runs out too quickly there's no where to charge it and it's too expensive it's been a bumpy start for the allelectric car with some survey saying only five percent of drivers are considering switching away from traditional gas guzzlers Can the electric car overcome these roadblocks Buckle up Industrial Revolutions gets behind the wheel Every day a thousand more cars join the congested roads of New Delhi pumping more carbon onto already smoggy streets experts warn India could see an extra 140 million vehicles by 2035 So, could the electric car be the solution.

It was specifically designed for lowcost but yet not be a boring vehicle and we have kept the cost under ten thousand dollars Launched a year ago Mahindra Reva's e2o is one of ten electric models on the global market it can travel 100 kilometers on a single charge We keep about 10 kilometres of charge in reserve that the customer cannot automatically use when the battery runs out of charge the customer has to contact the control center and control center will release the last ten kilometers and thereby cannot.

Accidentally and get stranded on the road With only five hundred e2o's sold so far it's clear there's a long road ahead to winning over skeptical consumers But maybe the future isn't an electric one Maybe the answer comes from the sky Meet Stella What makes Stella special is that it's the world's first family call on solar energy it's a car that actually provides energy instead of just using it Students at Eindhoven University built the four seater car to compete in the world solar challenge which they went on to win.

With it's aerodynamic shape and lightweight it can travel 400 kilometers on a single charge But what happens if the Sun doesn't shine It's going to stop Stella when it's cloudy because we have a really large battery in the car and essentially you can see it as a normal electric car but you have solar panel as range extender We saw electric vehicles coming up which are very practical but have a limited range but on the other hand we saw solar cars which have a huge range but are not.

#### QEX12M Photovoltaic Module Quantum Efficiency Measurement System

The Q E X 12 M is an easytouse turnkey solution for photovoltaic module analysis It enables you to measure the quantum efficiency of have any cell at any location on the module The system provides a comfortable work environment and is easy to load. The system features a light blocking enclosure The light intensity can be adjusted to optimize the measurement conditional The voltage bias can be adjusted to bring the device under test to shortcircuit conditions. Computercontrolled XY positioning of the small probe beam enables exact measurement have any point in the testing area.

#### PV Measurements Batch Quantum Efficiency Measurements

How many times have you had to sit in front of the QE system waiting to start the next scan Have you missed meetings with your colleagues Or missed dinner at home because you had to finish your measurements With the new List QE Feature from PV Measurements, You can program your software to run many scans, each with different measurement settings. Settings include Wavelength range, light bias intensity, temperature setpoint, XY Coordinates, and many more. This feature lets you measure your samples multiple ways unattended, While you're free to walk away and be part of the tasks you've been missing.

#### QEX10 Quantum Efficiency Measurement System Calibration

Hello. I'm Michael Kuhr with PV Measurements. Today I will go through the process of calibrating your QE system up to 1100 nanometers in a beam down configuration. Calibration of the system must be performed any time the system is turned on anytime the alignment of the optics is changed or when changing between beam up beam down or reflectance modes. The calibration standard used in this wavelength range is a silicon photodiode. This photodiode has been factory calibrated to a similar photodiode at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Or NIST. Note the placement of the photodiode. The beam is fully contained within the active area, near its focal point, and the photodiode is flat relative to the beam. This configuration is used during the factory calibration. Make sure your lamp has been running for at least 15 minutes before starting this measurement. Before the calibration consider the wavelength range of your measurement. It is important to have a fresh calibration data point for every data point in the scan range. If you want to measure your device in 10 nanometer increments.

Starting at 300 nanometers and up to 1100 nanometers, you must perform the calibration of the system with the same or finer interval so that the system is calibrated it each wavelength where a measurement is made. If you measure the photodiode starting at 295 nanometers with 10 nanometer increments the resulting calibration data points will be 295, 305, 315 nanometers and so on. None of the intended data points such as 300, 310 and 320 nanometers will have calibration data. A scan starting at 295 with five nanometer increments will give me twice the calibration data point density that you need,.

Which is fine. Once the scan is complete, click 'Save' and then click on 'Apply as Calibration'. Note the two lines in the graph The green calibration line shows the data for the factory calibration. The blue measured line is the measurement just performed on the photodiode. Notice that this measurement does not match up well with the calibration data. This is because this particular system has not been calibrated for some time. Due to slight changes in the optics and the bulb, the measure has shifted. That is normal. on the 'Update Calibration' button.

To update the calibration for your system. The graph does not adjust at this point, but the calibration has been updated. If you're interested in verifying the calibration, perform the same scan again. Save the measurement and click on the 'Apply as Calibration' button. Notice that the two lines now overlap. This shows that your calibration is indeed valid. It's not necessary to perform the second scan after each calibration, but it's a good way to check your calibration. on the 'Update Calibration' button and then continue. You're now ready to measure your sample.

#### QEX10 Quantum Efficiency Measurement System Extended Range Calibration

Hello, I'm Michael Kuhr with PV Measurements. Today I will go through the process of calibrating your QE system from 1000 nanometers up to 1800 nanometers in a beam down configuration. I suggest watching the previously posted tutorial of calibrating your system to 1100 nanometers before watching this tutorial. Calibration of the system must be performed anytime the system is turned on, anytime the alignment of the optics is changed, or when changing between beam up, beam down, or reflectance modes. Calibrating the extended range of the system has a unique complexity that the standard.

Range does not. Because no single device is accurate over the full wavelength range of the system, we must use two calibration devices. In addition to the silicon, we use a germanium photodiode that responds from 700 nanometers to 1800 nanometers. Any slight changes between the set up of the measurement can cause errors in the calibration. These errors are most apparent at the point where the two QE curves cross. The good news is this also makes it easy to check if the calibration has been performed correctly. The germanium material is inherently less uniform the silicon material used in our calibration.

Photodiodes. For this reason, the photodiode should be defocused to the point the beam nearly fills the entire active area of the photodiode. This minimizes the uncertainty in the measurement due to the non uniformity. Over the years, PV Measurements has sold various models of germanium photodiodes that may look different then the current model depending on the age of your system. Our current configuration includes a spacer that makes it easy to correctly focus the beam on the photodiode. When the focal point is at the top of the housing,.

The beam is defocussed to the correct amount into the photodiode. I have placed a piece of tape over the photodiode to make the beam easily visible. Notice it is in focus and in the center of the entrance. If you are unsure the beam is entirely in the active area of the cell, observe the main signal level, and move the photodiode into the location where the main signal level is at its maximum. The photodiode should be flat relative to the beam. Pictured here for reference is an older version.

Of our germanium photodiode. As with the silicon photodiode, scan the same range and wavelength increment as you intend to measure your device with. Apply the calibration from 1000 nanometers to the maximum wavelength desired by adjusting the update calibration range numbers from the apply calibration window. If the silicon calibration file appears, click on load calibration data and select the appropriate data file matching the serial number of the photodiode. To check the calibration, measure the photodiode across the 1000 nanometer calibration divide such as from 950 nanometers to 1050 nanometers. Ensure this curve is smooth across.

The calibration division. If there is a bump in the QE, there is most likely an error in the setup of the calibration devices. Double check the setup and calibrate again. As with the silicon photodiodes and any other calibration device, your germanium photodiode should be recalibrated as a regular interval. Our engineers recommend having your photodiode calibrated annually. PV Measurements calibrates photodiodes using photodiodes that have been calibrated at NIST. For technical assistance with your system, contact our technical support engineers at TechSupportPVMeasurements. And for information on calibrating your photodiode, contact our applications engineers at PVMSalesPVMeasurements.

#### Wind Turbine Power Curve description

So here we're looking at a typical wind turbine power curve. You can see it's broken up into 3 different regions. Region 1 is typically the region below the cutin wind speed, where the turbine is not producing any power. In region 2 the turbine ramps up from zero to what's called the rated power capacity. And this occurs at the rated wind speed. Region 3 is where there's constant power being produced by the wind turbine through pitching effects of the blades, so as to not overdrive the generator. You can see there's not much value in trying to go much more below.

#### QEX10 Quantum Efficiency Measurement System DC Mode Operation

Hello, I'm Michael Kuhr with PV Measurements. Today I will demonstrate how set up your QEX10 system for a DC Mode Measurement. The process for the QEX7 is very similar. With the system and software started, first set the beam to a visible wavelength. Then change the measurement mode from AC to DC by clicking the measurement mode button. Note the small depression in the top of the chopper wheel. Place the magnet assembly into the depression and quickly turn the chopper wheel power switch to the off position. As the chopper wheel slows,.

The magnet will stop the chopper wheel so the beam is not blocked. Visually verify the beam is not blocked by the chopper wheel by looking at the beam spot. If it is blocked, remove the magnet, turn the power on for the chopper wheel, and repeat the procedure. Please note turning off the chopper wheel before the magnet is applied can risk damaging the chopper wheel. During DC Mode measurements, bias lights may not be used and the system door must be closed to prevent room lighting from reaching the device.

Calibrate the system for your measurement range even if a recent AC Mode calibration has been performed. Your system is now ready for DC Mode measurements. When finished with your DC Mode measurements, change the measurement mode from DC to AC in the QE software, remove the magnet, and power on the chopper. Remember to calibrate anytime you change the measurement mode of the system. For technical assistance with your PV Measurements equipment, contact TechSupportPVMeasurements. For information on how to upgrade your QE system to perform DC Mode measurements, contact PVMSalesPVMeasurements.

#### How To Read A Solar Panel Technical Data Sheet Understanding IV Curves ReneSola Vitus II

How To Read A Solar Panel Technical Data Sheet Understanding IV Curves ReneSola Vitus II,ReneSola Australia conducted training for their clients in Melbourne in April 2014. This tutorial illustrates to users how to read an IV curve on a solar panel..

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#### Solar Revolution

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