Capture an IV Curve of a Solar Panel Solar Module Test Part 1 of 2
Today we're going to capture an IV curve of a solar panel using our new N6784A SMU module. It's a fourquadrant power supply and can be used in the 1U high compact system mainframe or it could be used in a benchfriendly DC power analyzer. For our demonstration today, we've installed the SMU module into channel one of the DC power analyzer, and we're using channel two to power our LED light source. Our LED light source is bright enough to create some photovoltaic energy in our solar panel, which will use the SMU module to capture both the voltage and current.
We've written a simple demonstration program to plot our IV curve. We start at zero volts and we make a current measurement from the SMU. We increase the voltage and make a current measurement. We continue to do that until we step all the way through our IV curve. From our IV curve, we can make several important measurements. We can capture the shortcircuit current, which is the true shortcircuit current. If we tried to make the same measurement with a multimeter, it would be a little bit low because of the burden voltage of the multimeter.
We can also measure the open circuit voltage of the solar panel, we can calculate the fill factor, as well as locate the max power point. Now, if we dim the light source, we can make another IV trace with lower illumination, and we can repeat this. Lower the light source and capture a curve. With our family of curves, you can see with lower levels of illumination, it really affects the first part of the IV curve more than the second half of the IV curve. This is common with solar panels.
Being that this is a fourquadrant power supply, we can actually extend our measurements into the adjacent quadrants. So we've started a new IV curve into the adjacent quadrants. So above this axis the SMU is sinking current, below this axis we're sourcing current. Likewise, on this axis we're sourcing a positive voltage and on this side of the axis we're sourcing a negative voltage. So in this particular example, we started with a negative voltage, we slightly increase it, measure the current and repeat that until we go all the way through our IV curve.
Solar Energy Calculator step 3 in replacing your Electricity Bill
Guy injury here you're obviously looking for a solar energy calculator July now if you're looking at 10 a.m. you looking in the solar power systems a khallid spent many months researching sold hell systems and work taylor also you know i saws and summations no osco lost in the information to be until I actually found a system with someone put it all together one school they'll spend a few bucks and go system and prices we solar energy calculator two or three or four months with wasn't on researching.
Because bicycling oh lordy was implement what I told me and and more electricity bills go $3,400 marked down to nothing unocal box one like it works the other next month a weak sales his bicycle 0 and it's a relief to know that you know that some in the month when old people seem to a raw if electricity is not gonna be wonderful yes i cud so look world's a flea on solar energy calculator just making these tutorials to help other people following you my shin of am because it's a godsend i cud either in the.
Calculate CurrentVoltage Characteristics in ATK 13.8
Let's have a look at the current voltage calculation in ATK 13.8. The calculation of IV curves. Here we did a calculation on a graphene nanoribbon Electrons are propagating here from the left electrode through the central region to the right electrode and there is a defect blocking the transport in the Central Part. In ATK 13.8 you can directly calculate an IV curve using the new IV analysis object. For a symmetric system you can directly symmetrize the IV curve to get the full IVspan From negative voltage to positive voltage.
You can also investigate the transmission spectra which are behind the calculation of the IV curve. Press the General Info to see the methodology again. You can see that in this case it has been done with the Hckel method you can see there are no Kpoints in this case because it's a 1D system. There are only k points in the transport direction. It's also possible to investigate the transmission spectrum in more detail in the Transmission Analyzer. Follow the link on the screen to learn more about the Transmission Analyzer.
QEX10 Quantum Efficiency Measurement System DC Mode Operation
Hello, I'm Michael Kuhr with PV Measurements. Today I will demonstrate how set up your QEX10 system for a DC Mode Measurement. The process for the QEX7 is very similar. With the system and software started, first set the beam to a visible wavelength. Then change the measurement mode from AC to DC by clicking the measurement mode button. Note the small depression in the top of the chopper wheel. Place the magnet assembly into the depression and quickly turn the chopper wheel power switch to the off position. As the chopper wheel slows,.
The magnet will stop the chopper wheel so the beam is not blocked. Visually verify the beam is not blocked by the chopper wheel by looking at the beam spot. If it is blocked, remove the magnet, turn the power on for the chopper wheel, and repeat the procedure. Please note turning off the chopper wheel before the magnet is applied can risk damaging the chopper wheel. During DC Mode measurements, bias lights may not be used and the system door must be closed to prevent room lighting from reaching the device.
Calibrate the system for your measurement range even if a recent AC Mode calibration has been performed. Your system is now ready for DC Mode measurements. When finished with your DC Mode measurements, change the measurement mode from DC to AC in the QE software, remove the magnet, and power on the chopper. Remember to calibrate anytime you change the measurement mode of the system. For technical assistance with your PV Measurements equipment, contact TechSupportPVMeasurements. For information on how to upgrade your QE system to perform DC Mode measurements, contact PVMSalesPVMeasurements.
How The Stock Exchange Works For Dummies
What is the Stock Exchange and how does it work The Stock Exchange is nothing more than a giant globally network tend to organize the market place where every day huge sums of money are moved back and forth. In total over sixty trillion 60,000,000,000,000 Euros a year are traded. More than the value of all goods and services of the entire world economy. However it's not apples or second hand toothbrushes that are traded on this marketplace. But predominantly securities. Securities are rights to assets , mostly in the form of shares.
A share stands for a share in a company. But why are shares traded at all Well, first and foremost the value of a share relates to the company behind it. If you think the value of a company in terms of a pizza. The bigger the overal size of the pizza, the bigger every piece is. If for example Facebook is able to greatly increase its profits with a new buisness model. The size of the companies pizza will also increase, and as a result so will the value of its shares.
This is of course great for the share holders. A share which perhaps used to be 38 euros could now be worth a whole 50 euros. When it's sold this represents a profit of twelve euro per share! But what does Facebook gain from this The company can raise funds by selling the shares and invest or expand it's buisness. Facebook for example has earned sixteen billion dollars from it's listing on the Stock Exchange. The trading of shares though, is frequently a game of chance. No one can say which company will preform well and which will not.
If a company has a good reputation, investors will back it. A company with a poor reputation or poor performance will have difficulty selling its shares. Unlike a normal market in which goods can be touched and taken home on the Stock Exchange only virtual goods are available. They apear in the form of shareprices and tables on monitors. Such shareprices can rise or fall within seconds. Shareholders therefore have to act quickly in order not to miss an opportunity. Even a simple rumor can result in the demand for a share falling fast regardless of the real value of the company.
Of course the opposite is also possible. If a particularly large amount of people buy weak shares. Becouse if they see for example great potential behind an idea. Their value will rise as a result. In particular young companies can benefit from this. Even though their sales might be falling, they can generate cash by placing their shares. In the best case scenario this will result in their idea being turned into reality. In the worst case scenario. this will result in a speculative bubble with nothing more than hot air.
Wind Turbine Power Curve description
So here we're looking at a typical wind turbine power curve. You can see it's broken up into 3 different regions. Region 1 is typically the region below the cutin wind speed, where the turbine is not producing any power. In region 2 the turbine ramps up from zero to what's called the rated power capacity. And this occurs at the rated wind speed. Region 3 is where there's constant power being produced by the wind turbine through pitching effects of the blades, so as to not overdrive the generator. You can see there's not much value in trying to go much more below.
NATIA Understanding Power Distribution Grid
Understanding the power distribution grid Where does electricity come from, and how does it get to a home or business It travels from the power plant, where it is generated, to all of its end users through the power distribution grid. A power plant generates threephase alternating current and sends this high voltage electricity down the power distribution grid at 155K to 765K volts. This is referred to as transmission level voltages, and the lines that carry this load are called transmission lines. Transmissionlinedelivered high voltages must be stepped down at a power substation for distribution to endusers.
The steppeddown voltage sent out from a substation will normally be 7,200 or 7,650 volts. These are distribution voltage levels, and the lines that carry this load are primary distribution lines, or are more commonly referred to as primary lines. The primary line voltage will then be reduced again using a stepdown, polemounted transformer to a singlephase 240volt service. This is the voltage level needed by all U.S. homes and most small businesses. The 240 volts produced by the stepdown transformer is split into two 120volt lines, and a ground, or neutral wire.
Denver Federal Center Sustainability Measures
Sustainability at the Denver Federal Center. Energy Efficiency at the DFC Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ARRA Building 1A Average Annual Savings $1,960.05 Building 15 Average Annual Savings $44,000.00 Building 20 Average Annual Savings $489,003.00 Building 21 Average Annual Savings $44,000.00 Building 25 Average Annual Savings $178,487.61 Building 40 Average Annual Savings $10,436.01 Building 41 Average Annual Savings $51,927.50 Building 45 Average Annual Savings $19,100.66 Building 50 Average Annual Savings $29,631.30 Building 54 Average Annual Savings $33,354.90 Building 55 Average Annual Savings $3,110.97 Building 56 Average Annual Savings $44,000.00 Building 85 Average Annual Savings $44,000.00 Building 95 Average Annual Savings $196,208.00 Building 710A Average Annual Savings $13,724.94 Building 720 Average Annual Savings $3,574.21 Building 810 Average Annual Savings $195,242.70.
Sustainable Features at the DFC Cool Roofs Xeriscape Pervious concrete Porous Asphalt Recycling Solar Array Solar Thermal Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Peoples Garden Building 20 Cool Roof Solar Array Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 21 Recycling Bicycle Parking Building 25 Solar Array Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 40 Xeriscape Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 41 Cool Roof Xeriscape Recycling Bicycle Building 50 Cool Roof Xeriscape Pervious Concrete Recycling Solar Array Solar Thermal Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 53 Xeriscape Pervious Concrete Porous Asphalt Recycling Solar Array Solar Thermal Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Peoples Garden Building 54 Porous Asphalt Bicycle Parking Building 56 Solar Array Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 67 Cool Roof Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 85 Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 95 Cool Roof Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking Building 810 Solar Array Electric Vehicle Bicycle Parking BiCentennial Park DFC Farmers Market.
Solar Arrays at the DFC For a virtual tour visit DFCPV 8.0 Megawatts DC The combined amount of energy all arrays will produce for the DFC Campus. Which generates 11,000 megawatt hours per year. Building 20 Roof 381.00 kW DC Carport 254.80 kW DC Building 25 Carport 484.10 kW DC Building 50 Carport 146.50 kW DC Building 56 Roof '3.00 kW DC Building 810 Roof 2,498.64 kW DC Carport 363.10 kW DC Solar Array Field 1 1,177.oo kW DC Solar Array Field 2 286.6 kW DC Solar Array Field 3 2,032.00 kW DC.
Solar Arrays DFC Building 56 Roof Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics '3.0 kW DC 544,811.0 kWh per year Started up 12162010 224watt solar panels Quantity 1,755 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 471,031.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide 5,838.6 kilograms of methane 7,138.4 Kilograms of nitrous oxide Solar Arrays DFC Building 810 Photovoltaic System Characteristics Roof Solar Array 2,498.64 kW DC 3,345,343.0 kWh per year Started up 12182010 224watt solar panels Quantity 11,154 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 2,892,303.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 35,850.9 kilograms of methane 43,838.5 Kilograms of nitrous oxide.
Solar Arrays DFC Field One Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 1,177.0 kW DC 1,454,000.0 kWh per year Started up 252007 190watt solar panels Quantity 6,192 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 1,257,094.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 15,582.1 kilograms of methane 19,053.7 Kilograms of nitrous oxide Solar Arrays DFC Field Two Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 286.6 kW DC 423,872.0 kWh per year Started up 8122011 245watt solar panels Quantity 1,170 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 336,470.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 4,542.5 kilograms of methane 5,554.6 Kilograms of nitrous oxide.
Solar Arrays DFC Field Three Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 2,032.0 kW DC 3,051,726.0 kWh per year Started up 8122011 245watt solar panels Quantity 8,424 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 3,051,726.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 32,706.2 kilograms of methane 40,037.8 Kilograms of nitrous oxide Solar Arrays DFC Building 20 Carport Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 254.8 kW DC 337,718.0 kWh per year Started up 10152011 245watt solar panels Quantity 1,040 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 291,883.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 3,619.2 kilograms of methane 4,425.6 Kilograms of nitrous oxide.
Solar Arrays DFC Building 25 Carport Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 484.1 kW DC 641,664.0 kWh per year Started up 12302010 245watt solar panels Quantity 1,976 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 554,767.3 metric tons of carbon dioxide 6,876.6 kilograms of methane 8,408.6 Kilograms of nitrous oxide Solar Arrays DFC Building 5053 Carport Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 146.5 kW DC 194,188.0 kWh per year Started up 10152011 245watt solar panels Quantity 598 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year 167,890.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 2,081.1 kilograms of methane 2,544.7 Kilograms of nitrous oxide.
Solar Arrays DFC Building 810 Carport Solar Array Photovoltaic System Characteristics 363.1 kW DC 452,811.0 kWh per year Started up 10152011 245watt solar panels Quantity 1,482 Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevented in Denver Area per year '1,490.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide 4,852.7 kilograms of methane 5,933.8 Kilograms of nitrous oxide Overall Energy Production and Pollution Reduction Denver Federal Center 8.0 Megawatts DC The combined amount of energy of all arrays will produce for the DFC Campus. Which generates 11,000 megawatt hours per year 9,486,373.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year 117,586.9 Kilograms of Methane 143,830.0 kilograms of Nitrous Oxide The combined amount of greenhouse gas pollution prevented in Denver are, per year, by the DFC Arrays. One metric ton 1.10231 tons To view real time data, visit DFCPV.
Solar Arrays How Solar Energy Works on the DFC The Solar Field Arrays send electricity to the inverter, then the transformer and finally the medium voltage grid before being sent to the DFC Substation. The Solar Roofs on the DFC buildings as well as the Solar Carports also send electricity to the inverter, then the transformer and finally the medium voltage grid before being sent to the DFC Substation. The electricity at the DFC Substation is then sent to the BiDirectional Meter and finally the utility grid. Sustainability at the DFC The General Services Administration is leading by example when it comes to sustainability. These projects are some of the many environmentally responsible products and technologies being implemented across the Denver Federal Center DFC campus.
Solar Power Design In Excel
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