# Solar Panel Calculator Excel Sheet

## Capture an IV Curve of a Solar Panel Solar Module Test Part 1 of 2

Today we're going to capture an IV curve of a solar panel using our new N6784A SMU module. It's a fourquadrant power supply and can be used in the 1U high compact system mainframe or it could be used in a benchfriendly DC power analyzer. For our demonstration today, we've installed the SMU module into channel one of the DC power analyzer, and we're using channel two to power our LED light source. Our LED light source is bright enough to create some photovoltaic energy in our solar panel, which will use the SMU module to capture both the voltage and current.

We've written a simple demonstration program to plot our IV curve. We start at zero volts and we make a current measurement from the SMU. We increase the voltage and make a current measurement. We continue to do that until we step all the way through our IV curve. From our IV curve, we can make several important measurements. We can capture the shortcircuit current, which is the true shortcircuit current. If we tried to make the same measurement with a multimeter, it would be a little bit low because of the burden voltage of the multimeter.

We can also measure the open circuit voltage of the solar panel, we can calculate the fill factor, as well as locate the max power point. Now, if we dim the light source, we can make another IV trace with lower illumination, and we can repeat this. Lower the light source and capture a curve. With our family of curves, you can see with lower levels of illumination, it really affects the first part of the IV curve more than the second half of the IV curve. This is common with solar panels.

Being that this is a fourquadrant power supply, we can actually extend our measurements into the adjacent quadrants. So we've started a new IV curve into the adjacent quadrants. So above this axis the SMU is sinking current, below this axis we're sourcing current. Likewise, on this axis we're sourcing a positive voltage and on this side of the axis we're sourcing a negative voltage. So in this particular example, we started with a negative voltage, we slightly increase it, measure the current and repeat that until we go all the way through our IV curve.

### Calculate CurrentVoltage Characteristics in ATK 13.8

Let's have a look at the current voltage calculation in ATK 13.8. The calculation of IV curves. Here we did a calculation on a graphene nanoribbon Electrons are propagating here from the left electrode through the central region to the right electrode and there is a defect blocking the transport in the Central Part. In ATK 13.8 you can directly calculate an IV curve using the new IV analysis object. For a symmetric system you can directly symmetrize the IV curve to get the full IVspan From negative voltage to positive voltage.

You can also investigate the transmission spectra which are behind the calculation of the IV curve. Press the General Info to see the methodology again. You can see that in this case it has been done with the Hckel method you can see there are no Kpoints in this case because it's a 1D system. There are only k points in the transport direction. It's also possible to investigate the transmission spectrum in more detail in the Transmission Analyzer. Follow the link on the screen to learn more about the Transmission Analyzer.

#### How The Stock Exchange Works For Dummies

What is the Stock Exchange and how does it work The Stock Exchange is nothing more than a giant globally network tend to organize the market place where every day huge sums of money are moved back and forth. In total over sixty trillion 60,000,000,000,000 Euros a year are traded. More than the value of all goods and services of the entire world economy. However it's not apples or second hand toothbrushes that are traded on this marketplace. But predominantly securities. Securities are rights to assets , mostly in the form of shares.

A share stands for a share in a company. But why are shares traded at all Well, first and foremost the value of a share relates to the company behind it. If you think the value of a company in terms of a pizza. The bigger the overal size of the pizza, the bigger every piece is. If for example Facebook is able to greatly increase its profits with a new buisness model. The size of the companies pizza will also increase, and as a result so will the value of its shares.

This is of course great for the share holders. A share which perhaps used to be 38 euros could now be worth a whole 50 euros. When it's sold this represents a profit of twelve euro per share! But what does Facebook gain from this The company can raise funds by selling the shares and invest or expand it's buisness. Facebook for example has earned sixteen billion dollars from it's listing on the Stock Exchange. The trading of shares though, is frequently a game of chance. No one can say which company will preform well and which will not.

If a company has a good reputation, investors will back it. A company with a poor reputation or poor performance will have difficulty selling its shares. Unlike a normal market in which goods can be touched and taken home on the Stock Exchange only virtual goods are available. They apear in the form of shareprices and tables on monitors. Such shareprices can rise or fall within seconds. Shareholders therefore have to act quickly in order not to miss an opportunity. Even a simple rumor can result in the demand for a share falling fast regardless of the real value of the company.

Of course the opposite is also possible. If a particularly large amount of people buy weak shares. Becouse if they see for example great potential behind an idea. Their value will rise as a result. In particular young companies can benefit from this. Even though their sales might be falling, they can generate cash by placing their shares. In the best case scenario this will result in their idea being turned into reality. In the worst case scenario. this will result in a speculative bubble with nothing more than hot air.

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