# How Do Solar Panels Work Chemistry

## Whats worse Mismatched solar panels with different amps in series or parallel

Hi, this is amy from the alte store.So i am going to show how to wire two mismatched solar panels together.I’ve got two 24v solar panels.One is a 24v 200w, and one is a 24v 100w.So this is half the output of this one.So we’re going to take some measurements and see, going though an mppt charge controller, to a 12v battery, am i better off wiring these in parallel or in series right now i’ve got just the 200w solar panel connected going through the charge controller, through my amp meter.I’m reading 7.57 amps, so i’m going.

To write that down 7.57a.Now, i’m going to connect the 100w all by itself.Ok, so now i have the 100w 24v solar panel going through the mppt to the battery, and just let that do it’s thing, and i’m going to get, here we go, 3.85a.So i had 7.57a from the first one, and i’ve got 3.83a from the 100w.That makes sense, it’s about half the the current.So, let’s put them in parallel now.Ok, so i’ve got the 200w and the 100w, both 24v going through the mppt charge controller, in parallel, to my battery.So let us see.

What it does.So the mppt is analyzing, and it is going to put out 10.74a.Now if i were to add those two currents together that i got earlier, i would have gotten about 11 12, so i got just over 10, 10.6.And now, let’s actually take them and wire them in series, and see if we get a different output.Alrighty because this is mppt, remember we can in fact take a higher voltage, put it into the mppt charge controller, you have to check the voltage range of the charge controller.But this one will be able to handle the two.

Of them in series.Here we go.I’ve got the 200w and the 100w solar panels, both 24v wired in series.So i have 48v going into the mppt charge controller.Coming out, and what we are going to see is the mppt charge controller is going to be converting it and, wow, i’ve got 7.6a coming out.So it actually really preferred having the solar panels in parallel.The 200w 24v and the 100w 24v.So the volts were the same, but the amps were different, and it really really preferred having them wired in parallel.I hope this was helpful,.

### Sunforce SOLAR Panels Are Sunforce Panels Any Good

Sunforce 50033 15watt solar charge kit the sunforce 50033 15watt solar charge kit is a big time moneysaver while providing you the means to power up your recreational vehicle and protect the environment at the same time.There’s no better way to power up your vehicle than getting clean, free energy from the sun.This kit comes with a 15watt amorphous solar panel, a solar charger that pushes out 7amps and a wiring kit that allows for easy installation.Amorphous solar panels are designed by spraying on thin layers of silicon onto glass.This.

Allows the sunforce 50033 to generate electricity even lowlight conditions when its cloudy or in shady environments.This is especially useful for rv owners who journey through all types of climate conditions across the country and need to stay powered while traveling.Sunforce 50033 15watt solar charge kit features and specifications up to 15watts of clean, free, renewable powers comes from the included amorphous solar charging kit this is designed with remote power use specifically for rvs these solar panels can withstand the hailstones travelling 50 milesperour includes an ultrabright blue led charging.

Indicator that’s builtin comes with a 15watt solar panel on a durably mounted frame, a wiring kit that comes with accessories for easy installation, solar charger that puts out 7amps user reviews of the sunforce 50033 15watt solar charge kit users of the 50033, for the most part, were pretty satisfied with the charger.One individual had a charging problem, but he realized he left his lights on his vehicle overnight.It’s a good idea to follow the instructions carefully with this device.Another individual was happy to report this solar panel kit charged up his rv quite nicely without having to plug.

His vehicle to the 115v access on his house all summer long.The sunforce 50033 apparently has a multipurpose use as one lady used it to charge everything including her aa and aaa camera batteries.Because of the 15wattage, another rv owner advised to keep the lights off while charging your vehicles.On the whole, most users found the solar charge kit worked exactly as instructed when used specifically as it’s designed to be used.Don’t waste your money buying an ineffective rv solar panels.Read my consumer reviews of the rv solar panels that rv enthusiasts love the most at rvsolarpanels.

#### Solar Panels Catch Fire Community Center Evacuated

Golson about how he is doing, open up your koat mobile app tonight and you can find an extended interview.This time of year, the smoke in the sky is enough to get anyone’s attention, thanks to some firefighters, thanks to firefighters, that was fixed.This community center was on fire.They actually went in and helped evacuate the people.Todd so did the staff who helped people get out.Sky 7 was overhead as fire crews put the finishing touches on their work, you can see what is left behind.

#### What effect does tilt angle have on solar panels

Hi this is amy from the alte store.We’ve shown you tutorials already on the effect of shading on solar panels, and effect of the direction you point your panels, now we are going to show you the effect of tilting your panels.Now the angle that you select to mount your panels will depend on a few different things.If you have got just a straight grid tie system that is going to be on your roof and your roof it a normal average tilted roof, you’re really just going to put it on that, because chasing after every little last angle on.

A grid tie system quite often isn’t worth the extra money.But, if you’ve got an offgrid system, and you need to pull out every single watt hour you can out of the system, then angle really does come into play, quite significantly.So i’m going to show you the effect of what we’ve got here.So it is november 20, very close to the winter equinox, so the sun is very low in the sky.I’m in massachusetts, so my angle up here, my latitude is 42 degrees.So if i want to maximize year round performance, i would want to set my panels at as close.

As possible to 42 degrees, because if you figure it’s going to be that, the sun is going to be that angle in the spring and the fall, as opposed to in the summer when it’s just going to be really high, or in the winter when it’s going to be very low.So you really need to figure out when you will be maximizing it.Do you have a winter hunting cabin that you need to maximize your winter, or a year round place, in that case, you’d want to put.

Them at bit of a steeper angle to try to get as much power as you can during the short winter days.If you just have a summer camp, you’re going to have it really up very high.If you’ve got an rv that you are just driving around with, odds are pretty good that if you just put it flat on the top of your roof, you’re going to be great, because you are probably going to be using it in the summer when the sun is the highest.So let’s actually.

See what affect this has.Now again, i’m at 42 degrees latitude in november, so i’ve got this at just over 50 degree angle.So i’m really pointing directly at the sun.Now you see up here, i’ve also got a meter, it’s an insolation meter, so it’s showing me the intensity of the sun.Solar panels are rated at the standard test conditions, which is 1000 watts per square meter.So right now at quarter of two in the afternoon, i’m almost at 900 watts per square meter.So i’ve got pretty good intense sunlight right now.And so i’m.

Going to show you the volts and the amps.So my volts right now is 19.8 volts and my amps is.41 amps.So you know i’ve got little 5 watt panels, so they are going to be fairly low.But you are going to see a pretty dramatic change here in the amps, but not so much on the volts.If you saw the other tutorials you’ll see that intensity of the sunlight doesn’t affect volts as much as it affects amps, and that’s true with most semiconductors.So i’m.

Going to change my angle here.So i’ve got it at 35 degrees now.My insolation has dropped down to 712, by volts is still pretty high at 19.6, but my amps have dropped down to.34.Now if i go down a bit more here, now i’m at 20 degrees, which would be great in the summer, but november 20 not so good.My insolation’s down to 500 and something, 540, my volts is still, again, still fine at 19.4 volts, but my amps has dropped almost in half to.27 amps.If i drop down even further, so i’m pretty much flat, so this is something.

You’d see probably on an rv, my insolation is dropped down to 267 watts per square meter.My volts is still ok, it’s 18.8 volts, but my amps is.15 amps, so i’m really not getting much power out of these panel.So you really can see that the angle that you tilt them does matter.So if you’ve got an off grid system, you might want to do something that you can have them adjustable angles, so that you can have it so that in the winter you are going to have it pretty steep, and in the summer you are going to have it pretty.

Shallow.Now again, if you’ve got a grid tie system, quite often it isn’t worth it because the year round average is going to average out to be alright.But if you have got an off grid system where you really need to keep those batteries charged up in the winter, having an adjustable system is a great idea.We can actually combine a couple of these demos that we did and if you have a tracking system, a dual axis tracking system that will actually follow the sun during the day , and change its angle throughout the year, that.

Gives you the best of both worlds.So that would really greatly increase your output, but does add a lot of expense and mechanical capabilities to your system.So it is something you really need to take a look at, does it make sense to be chasing after every little bit, could you just make up for the less than perfect conditions by putting some more solar panels on.So that’s a bit of a balance.So i hope this helped you understand what angle does.If you liked this, give us a like and a share, and subscribe to our channel so we’ll.

#### How to Wire Shaded Solar Panels

Hi this is amy from the alte store.Well, i’ve already shown you a tutorial, just kind of in general showing how shading affects panels.But what i wanted to do is show you a little bit more details, and different options that you can take if shading is not avoidable.How you can wire your panels differently to help minimize the shading.So i have two identical 50w solar panels here.They are 12v, so their vmp, their maximum power output is about 18v.And their imp, their maximum current is about 2.78a.Now it is getting to be almost 400,.

So i’m not going to get perfect performance out of this, but i think that you are really going to be able to see quite well how shading affects panels.Now i’m going to be talking about cells.Each solar panel is made up of a series of cells.So you can see here, this is one cell.So each cell puts out just over about 12 volt.So what you do is the silver that is going across here, this is wire that is wiring all of these cells in series, so that increases the volts so the output becomes about 18v.

Now , most of the 12v solar panels that you’ll see are actually 36 cell panels.These are 72 cell panels.These are alte store panels.The reason that is, is they have actually got two parallel strings of 36.So we’ve got 36 cells wired in series, 36 cells wired in series, and then those two sets are wired in parallel.So, i just wanted to let you know when i’m talking about cells, that’s what’s going on.Ok ok, so right now, i just have one of these solar panels wired to my test setup.

I’ve got the mppt midnite kid charge controller going to my mk battery 12v battery.So i’ve got a 12v panel right now just going by itself through the charge controller, into the battery.And we can see that i’ve got coming right out of the solar panel, i have 14.9v, and 2.46a.So that’s pretty good, considering i’m not at perfect conditions.And coming out of the charge controller to the battery is 12.6v and 2.59a.So you can see even when it’s a 12v panel and a 12v battery, the mppt does drop the volts and raise the.

Amps a bit.So let’s take a look at the power rating.So i’ve got 36.6w coming out of the solar panel going into the charge controller.And then 32.7w going into the battery.So there’s always going to be a little bit of losses through any sort of equipment that you go.Alright so those are the numbers that we’re going to be taking a look at.So, here again is one cell of a solar panel.So i’ve got 72 cells.Now i want to show you what happens if i shade one full cell of this solar panel.

So i go from 2.45a, with one cell shaded, i drop down to 1.7a.So, you would think that ok, well boy one cell dropping it down that much, what’s 2 cells going to do ah, that drops down to 1.4a, but you’re going to notice, the volts isn’t all that impacted.We’re at 14.9v, if i shade the 1, i’m still at 14.9v.Even if i start shading several of them, i’m really not seeing much difference in the volts.Where i see the difference is amps.So current is affected by shading.

Now let’s take a look at if i’m shading across multiple cells, but just a little bit of it.So i’ve got 1, 2, 3, i’ve got 6 cells that i’m shading, just about a quarter of them.I’m at 2.3a.That’s actually not bad.2.4a.So the direction of what you shade is as important as where you shade.So you can see i’m shading the same amount, i’m shading out an entire cell, vs.Same amount of shade, vs.A bunch of them, just part of them.So keep this in mind when we continue on, we’re going to show some demonstrations here.

So what i’m going to do is i’m going to wire these two panels in series, and see what shading one panel does to the whole array.Alright let’s rewire to do that.Ok, so now we have these two solar panels wired in series.So our volts is 27.5v, so that’s the two voltages pretty much added together.And then our current is 2.1a, so the current stayed right about the same because when you wire in series, the voltage increases and the current stays the same.So if we look at our output into the charge controller, our watts is doubled because we’ve.

Got the two solar panels going in there now.So the volts again dropped from the higher voltage down to the 12v to charge my battery, and increased the current to 4.28a.So let’s work on the shading.So if i start shading 1 string, now remember we’ve got, let’s say we’ve got 55w going into the charge controller.So i’m going to shade 1 cell, sand that’s dropping us down to 37, 36w.So shading 1 cell, it brought us all the way down from over 50, 59w down to ltwhistlesgt.

36w.So let’s see shading multiple, 4, really didn’t do that much difference.We’re at 32w, let’s say.So the difference, again, wired in series, the difference between shading one cell and multiple cells is not all that different.Just for kicks and giggles shade some from both, so one from both.We’re dropped down to 36w shading both panels.So this is with them wired in series.So let me write down these volts and we’re going to rewire everything, and we’re going to see what it does if i’ve got them wired in parallel.

Alrighty alright.So, now we’ve got the two panels wired in parallel.So you’ll see that our current has doubled, and our volts has stayed the same.So we’re right around 15v.That’s right around what we were seeing with just a single one.But our current is up to 4.49a, so let’s say 4.5a.So we are double, or almost double with what we were with just a single one.So now if we look at the watts, we’re at 66w coming out.So again, it’s all right about in the same ballpark that we had when we had the two of.

Them wired in series.So now that we’re wired in parallel, with the pluses together and the minuses together, let’s see what happens to the whole thing when we shade just one cell.So, i’m shading this cell, again my volts really isn’t doing much, i’m at 16.6v, really not changing much.I’m going from 3.46a to 3.2a, actually that’s not so bad.So let’s shade a couple of them, 3a, 2.9.So now i’m starting to see some more substantial differences.But what’s happening is because we’ve wired these seperately, each panel has got its own.

Seperate path to get to the battery.So shading just one of the panels is not going to be negaively impacting the other panel.Whereas when we had them in series, we were negatively impacting the whole series, because everything had to go through the whole series.So the current was hitting a bottleneck when we shade the one.So if we do shade a cell from both panels, then yup, we’re going to drop down to, let’s say 2.6a, but again the volts don’t change all that much.So, this kind of shows you, that if you do have some partial shading, and it’s on only.

One of the panels at a time, so say you’ve got a chimney that you really have no control over, or if it’s on a sailboat, and you’ve got the mast that is kind of important, if you’ve got partial shading that’s going to be changing, it’s better to wire them in parallel to give the parallel path for the nonshaded panel.Ideally, and i know i say this a lot, ideally each panel should have its own charge controller, that way you will get absolute maximum performance, but if it’s not an option, wiring in parallel.

#### Mismatched Solar Panels Same amps different volts and watts

Hi, this is amy from the alte store.Now we’ve been doing a series of tutorials where we are demonstrating how the best way is to wire up mismatched solar panels.So we’ve already done you’ve got the same voltage but different amps and watts, we’ve done the same watts, different amps and volts.Now we are going to do the same amps, different volts and watts.Now definitely, with all of these tests that we are doing, absolutely the best way to do this is to have each solar panel have its own independent charge controller, if you’ve got very different.

Solar panels.But, if that’s not an option, we’re just giving you some ideas of how you can maximize it, and make the best out of not the perfect situation.So we have two solar panels, a 100w 24v solar panel, with a short circuit current of 3.03a, and an open circuit voltage of about 44v.And i’ve got a 50w solar panel, with the isc, the short circuit current also at 3.03a and it’s voc is half of that, it’s about 22v.So, we are going to show you the power that they output going through an mppt charge controller, into.

My 12v battery.And then we will be able to see independently how much power they put out and also how much power if we wire then in series and in parallel.Alright let’s get started.Right now, i’ve got the 24v 100w solar panel connected through my mppt charge controller to the battery, and i’m reading 34.7v in, that makes sense, it’s got a vmp of 36v , and it’s kind of hot out, so the voltage is a little bit lower.And the current output is 5.86a.That’s because it took that higher voltage, and it dropped it.

Down.So you’ve got your lower voltage coming out, but your higher current coming out.So that is 5.85a.So now let’s change it around, and connect the 12v 50w panel.Ok, so now we’ve got our 12v 50w panel connected, and i’m seeing 18v in, that makes perfect sense, it’s got an 18vmp.And the output is 3.08a.Now it’s got a 2.78a imp, current at maximum power, so that means the mppt charge controller is actually boosting that current up a little bit, so we are getting better than standard test conditions from this solar panel going.

Through the mppt charge controller.That’s kind of nice.So let’s call it 3.08a on its own.Alright and remember that we were up almost at 6a with the 100w panel, makes sense, it’s twice the watts, it was putting out twice the current.So, let’s wire the two of them together in parallel, and see what kind of combined numbers we get coming out of it.Alright ltchattergt alright, so we’ve got these two panels wired in parallel, the 24v 100w and the 12v50w, wired in parallel.Now you see the voltage going into the charge controller.

Has actually been pulled way down.Remember when we just had the 24v solar panel, we were up around 36v, 34v, somewhere around there.And what are seeing now is 20v.So what’s happening is this 12v solar panel, being wired in parallel, is pulling that voltage way down.And because this is on the input of the charge controller, unlike on the output of the charge controller where it drops the volts but raises the amps, it’s not increasing the amps.So we are just losing a tremendous amount of power.Because watts equals volts times amps,.

If we are dropping the volts down, but leaving the amps the same, we are losing a lot of power.So let’s look at the output of this.We are getting 6.29a coming out at 12.7v.That’s, that’s pretty lousy considering we were getting with just the single panel in there.So, let’s wire the two of them in series now, going into that mppt charge controller.Because they both have the same amps, but different volts, we are going to keep the amps the same through the whole string, we’re going to add the volts together, and then.

The charge controller will drop those volts down while increasing the amps.So let’s see what we get with that, alright the negative from the 12v panel is going to the charge controller, the positive is going to the negative of the 24v panel.And then the positive of that panel is going to the charge controller.So you can see we’ve got 52v going into the charge controller, that’s the addition of the two panels wired together.And if we look at the current output, we’re at 8.38a out at 13v.So that’s definitely the best power.

#### Solar Panels for Beginners 60 cell vs 72 cell solar panels

Hi i’m amy from the alte store.I’m going to show you the difference between 60 cell solar panels, and 72 cell solar panels.Other than the obvious difference of 12 solar cells, there are pros and cons to using each of them in different solar power systems.First a little background.Solar panels are made from blocks of silicon ingots that are cut into square cells.Those are the squares that you see that make up the solar panels.Each solar cell produces about a half a volt.They then wire multiple cells in series, plus to minus, to make a solar panel.

Wiring the cells in series increase the solar panel voltage to a usable level.The more cells that are wired in series, the higher the voltage.For example, if 36 cells are wired in series, you get an output of about 18 volts.Now, solar first got its start in the battery based off grid world, where solar panels were built to charge a battery bank.The 36 cell solar panel that outputs 18v is perfect for charging a 12v battery bank, since you need a higher voltage to charge a battery.

So a 36 cell solar panel is called a 12v nominal panel, as it is designed to charge a 12v battery.Likewise, a solar panel with twice as many cells, 72 cells, outputs about 36 volts, and it is great for charging a 24v battery bank.So it is called you got it, a 24v nominal solar panel.If you have a 48v battery bank, there aren’t many companies that make 48v solar panels.So, in that case, what do you do if you need to charge a 48v battery bank.

You would wire multiple solar panels together in series, either four 12v panels or two 24v panels to output 72v, which will efficiently charge a 48v battery bank, even in very hot weather when the voltage of silicon panels drops low.For an example of the effect that heat has on solar panels, check out this tutorial we did on temperature and silicon solar panels.So all was well and good with figuring out what nominal voltage solar panels to use, just make them match the nominal voltage of the batteries, when along came two different.

Technologies that added an interesting twist to the mix.The first was grid tie solar.With a grid tie inverter, you could now convert the dc voltage from the solar panels directly into ac to power your house, no batteries required.So the restriction of 12v, 24v, and 48v went away.This allowed the solar panel manufacturers to use however many cells they wanted to.For solar panels up to about 300w, the industry settled on 60 cells.Using the terminology from the battery world, that’s a 20v nominal panel.With an open circuit voltage, or voc, of around 38v, grid tie solar systems were able to string.

Up to 12 or 13 60 cell solar panels in series and stay within the electrical code restriction of staying under 600v dc, even when taking cold temperature into consideration.If they were using 24v 72 cell panels, they would be limited to only 11 in series in cold environments, limiting their system size.The second change was still in the battery based world, with the solar charge controllers that are used to manage putting the power from the solar panels into the batteries.Early on, the shunt or pulse width modulated pwm charge controllers had to match the nominal.

Voltage between the solar panels and the battery bank.Maximum power point tracking mppt solar charge controllers came onto the scene and allowed you to take a higher voltage solar input and reduced the charge controller voltage output to correctly charge a battery bank, while increasing the output current, eliminating any power loss due to forcing solar panels to operate at whatever voltage the battery bank was actually at.This opened up the ability to use any cell count solar panels, as long as the voltage was higher than the battery bank.

Although some specialized charge controllers allow you to charge with a lower voltage solar panel, most of them require higher voltage.Since 60 cell grid tie solar panels are so common now, their price per watt has dropped much lower than the nichy 12v panels, making them an attractive option to charge battery banks.Just remember you have to use a more expensive mppt charge controller to do it.Also note that you cannot use a single 60 cell solar panel to charge a 24v battery bank.You need at least one 72 cell panel or two 60 cell panels in series to have a voltage.

High enough to charge 24v.If you are in a cold environment, most 150v mppt solar charge controllers limit you to up to only two 72 cell panels in series, but you can do up to three 60 cell panels in series, and still stay within that 150v limitation.So, what about the 72 cell 24v solar panels for grid tie solar systems well, technology and codes move forward, and newer revisions of the electric codes now allow for 1000v strings for grid tie commercial and utility scale systems.Also, grid tie inverters are getting bigger and bigger, allowing for extremely high wattages.

Getting inverted.Since watts equals volts times amps, a way to increase the wattage of a solar panel is to increase the voltage by adding additional cells.Adding 12 more cells generally adds an additional foot of length to the solar panel.With larger commercial and utility scale projects, larger panel sizes are able to be used.So 72 cell panels give them a way to regularly make solar panels well over 300w.Higher wattage solar panels reduce the number of panels that are needed in the system to reach your target wattage,.

Which can decrease the labor needed to install them.Higher wattage panels may also reduce the amount of balance of system equipment needed, including racking, wire, and in some cases, electronics themselves, if they are using microinverters or dc optimizers.Note that not all microinverters will support 72 cell solar panels, so 60 cell is still the only option in some cases, mostly for home systems.Most 72 cell panels still weigh less than the 50 lb restriction set by osha, so can be carried by one person, although their size can make it awkward to handle alone.The smaller 60 cell solar panels.

Can be easier to handle.So, what size solar panel you should use for your project depends on a lot of criteria.Are you building an offgrid or a grid tie solar system if it is off grid, what voltage battery bank are you trying to charge do you have physical size restrictions that would limit the size of the panel will the equipment you want to use support the solar panel will a higher voltage panel restrict the number of panels you can use in a system these are all questions you need to ask to determine what size panels are right for you.

#### What can I power with a 100W solar panel

Hi this is amy at the alte store.We sell a lot of solar panels for diy offgrid solar projects.Generally when we design a solar system, we start with your loads, what you are trying to power, and from there you figure out what size solar panel you need.We’ve got lots of tutorials walking you through the calculations.But now we are going to look at it the other way around, what can you power with a 100w solar panel a solar panel is rated by the amount of power it creates at.

Standard test conditions, or stc.These conditions include the intensity of the sun, 1000 watt per square meter, the angle of the light hitting the panel directly, the temperature, 25 or 77, and other criteria.So as they say, actual mileage may vary, based on all of these factors in the real world.So we generally reduce the calculations based on the difference between the lab setting and your actual installation.When a 12v solar panel is rated at 100w, that is an instantaneous rating, if all of the test conditions are met, when you measure.

The output, the voltage will be about 18 volts and the current will be 5.55 amps.Since watts equals volts times amps, 18 volts x 5.55 amps 100 watts.Watts is like the speed of a car, miles per hour, how fast is it going at that instant, 50 miles per hour.To figure out how much power is generated over a period of time, you can to multiply the watts times the number of hours it is running.So in one hour, 100w x 1 hour 100 watt hours.Again,.

With your car, 50 miles per hour x one hour equals 50 miles.Now that we know the math behind it, we need to figure out how many hours to plug into the equation to determine how much power the solar panel will generate in a day.How many hours of sunlight that is equal to the intensity of standard test conditions, which is basically the sun at noon, will the solar panel be exposed to during the day the number of hours of sunlight equal to noon is called sun hours.As you well know, even though the sun is up.

At 8 in the morning, it is not as bright as it is at noon.So you can’t just say that the sun is shining for 10 hours, so i’ll multiple 100w x 10 hours.The hour between 8 and 9 in the morning is probably only half as strong as the sun from noon to 1 in the afternoon, so the morning hour would probably only be equal to sun hour.But the days are so much shorter in the winter than the summer, the number of sun hours would be dramatically.

Different throughout the year.Also, the amount of sunlight i’d get in miami florida would be different than the amount of sun hours i’d get in portland maine.Ugh, this can get complicated.Luckily, some very smart people have taken decades worth of weather data and calculated out the number of sun hours for all over the world, broken out by month, and even the tilt angle that the panels are mounted.So i can look at the charts to see if i have a 100w solar panel, in portland, maine, installed at about 45 degrees angle,.

On annual average, i’d get 4.6 sun hours a day.Likewise, if i took that same solar panel in miami florida, installed it at a 25 degree tilt, i’d have an annual average of 5.2 sun hours.Just as a little aside, i want to make sure you see that during the months of june and july, i’m going to get more power out of that solar panel in maine than i will in florida.With miami being closer to the equator and maine being closer to the north pole, the days are longer in the summer in maine, and so the sun shines on the solar.

Panels longer.Kind of cool, huh ok, back to the question at hand, what can i power with a 100w solar panel i need to figure out my worst case scenario, what is the worst performing month that i’ll be using the panel since for this example i’m going to be using it in maine, during ski season, i need to figure on december.So how can i squeeze out as much power as i possibly can in december by tilting the solar panel steeper so it points right at the low winter sun.So i’m going to mount my 100w solar panel.

At 60 degrees and figure on 3.2 sun hours.I’ll now take 100w x 3.2 sun hours and get 320 watt hours a day in december.Now, as you know, nothing in real life is perfect, so i have to figure in losses that i’ll likely incur, such as voltage drop across the wire, dirt or snow accumulating on the solar panel, losses through the charge controller, etc.So i’m going to multiply the 320 watt hours times.7.I know, that’s figuring on losing about of your power.Reality’s a bummer.I now end up with 224 watt hours.

Of power that i have made with my 100w solar panel on a december day.What can i do with that power well, first of all i need to store it in a battery so that i can use it later when i need it.So i’m going to use at least a 7 amp charge controller to manage putting the power into a deep cycle battery that can be charged and discharged on a regular basis.What size battery do i need sorry, that calls for more math.I have my 224 watt hours that.

I’m making, and i’m putting it in a 12 volt battery.Because watts divided by volts equals amps, 224 watt hours divided by 12 volts equals 18.6 amp hours.Even though i’m putting it in a deep cycle battery, most batteries still don’t like being drained down more than half way, so i’m going to make sure i get a battery that can hold at least twice as much power i will be using, so i’ll only use half of the power in it.18.6 amp hours x 2 37.2 amp hours.The amount of power a battery can store changes depending on the.

Temperature of the room it’s in.If my battery is going to be as cold as 60 degrees fahrenheit, i need to increase the size of my battery by 11 to accommodate the cooler temps 37.2 amp hours x 1.11 41.3 amp hours.I’m also going to be converting the dc power from my battery to ac using an inverter, and i’m going to lose about 5 of my power through that conversion, so 41.3 amp hours .95 43.4 amp hours.Now i don’t know if you’ve ever been in maine in the winter.But trust me on this one, the sun doesn’t shine every.

Day there in december.Not by a long shot.So i need to figure out how many days without sun that i need to store the power for to get me through those sunless days.Let’s say i need it to last me the weekend without sun.43.4 amp hours x 2 days 86.9 amp hours.Great, i’m going to get myself a group 27 deep cycle battery, that’s 89ah 12v.Ok, now, i can finally figure out what i can do with that power.I can run my laptop that.

Uses 45w for 5 hours.Because 224 watt hours 45w 4.97 hours.Or i can power 3 of my 10w led lights for 7 hours, and still have a little power left over.Or i could make myself a cup of coffee, listen to the radio while reading a book with a 10w light on for 3 hours, and use my laptop for 2 hours.This should give you enough information so that you can figure out how to fit this into your situation.You can change the numbers to fit.